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Explained: New mRNA Vaccine Could Protect Against Future Covid-like Pandemic. What Is It?

Like the COVID vaccines made by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna, the experimental flu vaccine relies on mRNA and if we go by what scientists have to say, the vaccine offers hope of protection against any kind of future flu-pandemic. 

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Vaccine for kids aged 5-12 years.(Representational image)
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For months, scientists have developed an experimental mRNA vaccine that would be effective against all 20 known subtypes of the influenza virus, according to a study. In its initial tests, it was proved that it would further provide broad protection from otherwise lethal flu strains, according to a study

Like the COVID vaccines made by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna, the experimental flu vaccine relies on mRNA and if we go by what scientists have to say, the vaccine offers hope of protection against any kind of future flu-pandemic. 

This mRNA technology that enabled those COVID-19 vaccines was pioneered at Penn.

According to media reports, the vaccine developed at the University of Pennsylvania could be ready for use the winter after next.

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What is the new mRNA vaccine?

Scientists have developed an mRNA lipid nanoparticle vaccine containing antigens from all twenty known subtypes of influenza A and B viruses, a strategy which may serve as the basis for universal flu vaccines, according to a study.

The vaccine, developed by researchers from the US and Canada, produced high levels of cross-reactive and subtype-specific antibodies in mice and ferrets and could protect animals against disease symptoms and death after infection with both antigenically matched and mismatched strains of influenza, the study said.

What has been the effectiveness of the vaccine to now?

The “multivalent” vaccine, which the researchers described in a paper published in the journal Science, used the same messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) technology employed in the Pfizer and Moderna SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, the study said.

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According to the study, tests in animal models showed that the vaccine dramatically reduced signs of illness and protected from death, even when the animals were exposed to flu strains different from those used in making the vaccine.

This could serve one day as a general preventative measure against future flu pandemics, the researchers from the University of Pennsylvania, US, said.

“The idea here is to have a vaccine that will give people a baseline level of immune memory to diverse flu strains, so that there will be far less disease and death when the next flu pandemic occurs,” said study senior author Scott Hensley.
Hensley and his colleagues currently are designing human clinical trials, he said. The researchers envision that, if those trials are successful, the vaccine may be useful for eliciting long-term immune memory against all influenza subtypes in people of all age groups, including young children.

In principle, he added, the same multivalent mRNA strategy can be used for other viruses with pandemic potential, including coronaviruses.

According to media reports, the vaccine developed at the University of Pennsylvania could be ready for use the winter after next.

How does the mRNA vaccine work?

The strategy employed by the Penn researchers is to vaccinate using immunogens -- a type of antigen that stimulates immune responses -- from all known influenza subtypes in order to elicit broad protection, the study said.

The vaccine is not expected to provide “sterilizing” immunity that completely prevents viral infections. Instead, the new study showed that the vaccine elicited a memory immune response that can be quickly recalled and adapted to new pandemic viral strains, significantly reducing severe illness and death from infections.

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The experimental vaccine, when injected and taken up by the cells of recipients, started producing copies of a key flu virus protein, the hemagglutinin protein, for all twenty influenza hemagglutinin subtypes—H1 through H18 for influenza A viruses, and two more for influenza B viruses.

“For a conventional vaccine, immunizing against all these subtypes would be a major challenge, but with mRNA technology, it’s relatively easy,” Hensley said.

In mice, the mRNA vaccine elicited high levels of antibodies, which stayed elevated for at least four months, and reacted strongly to all 20 flu subtypes. Moreover, the vaccine seemed relatively unaffected by prior influenza virus exposures, which can skew immune responses to conventional influenza vaccines.

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The researchers observed that the antibody response in the mice was strong and broad, whether or not the animals had been exposed to flu virus before.

Vaccines and pandemic

Influenza viruses periodically cause pandemics with enormous death tolls. The best known of these was the 1918-19 “Spanish flu” pandemic, which killed at least tens of millions of people worldwide.

Flu viruses can circulate in birds, pigs, and other animals, and pandemics can start when one of these strains jumps to humans and acquires mutations that adapt it better for spreading among humans.

Current flu vaccines are merely “seasonal” vaccines that protect against recently circulating strains, but would not be expected to protect against new, pandemic strains.
 
 (with PTI inputs)
 

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