Buttler's first assignment as England's full-time white-ball captain will be against India, in a series featuring three T20s and ODIs, starting July 7.
“It is a great honor to take over from Eoin, and the place he has left English white-ball cricket in is exciting, and I'm inspired for the challenges ahead,” Buttler said.
Buttler has been a vice-captain since 2015, and recently led the England national cricket team to a 3-0 ODI series win against the Netherlands.
He has led England 14 times already -- nine in ODIs and five T20Is -- in the absence of Eoin Morgan.
The wicketkeeper-batter has so far played 151 ODI games for England, scoring 4,120 runs at an average of 41.20. He has 10 centuries and 21 fifties.
Jos Buttler has played 88 T20Is, scoring 2,140 runs with an average of 34.51. And he is one of three England cricketers, with Dawid Malan and Heather Knight, to have scored centuries in all three formats of the game.
"Jos is a fantastic role model who inspires through his performances on the pitch. He has been instrumental in setting new standards in men's white-ball cricket, and is the perfect leader to build on the incredible legacy which Eoin has built for our men's white-ball teams," Clare Connor, Interim ECB Chief Executive Officer, said.
Having made his T20I debut in 2011, Buttler has been part of England's white-ball set-up for over a decade. The right-handed batter made his ODI debut a year later.
"I'm excited to see where Jos and Matthew Mott take things from here, particularly as we build towards the ICC Men's T20 World Cup," Connor added.
Meanwhile, Ben Stokes-led Test team will face India in the rescheduled fifth Test at Edgbaston, Birmingham, starting Friday.