The Tunisian will next face either former champion Angelique Kerber or Elise Mertens for a shot at the quarterfinals.
Jabeur reached the quarterfinals a year ago at the All England Club.
Also, Heather Watson reached the fourth round for the first time with a 7-6 (6), 6-2 win over Kaja Juvan of Slovenia. The 30-year-old Briton is making her 12th singles appearance at the All England Club.
Watson will next face Jule Niemeier of Germany.
Qualifier Jack Sock became the eighth American man to reach the third round at Wimbledon with a 6-4, 6-4, 3-6, 7-6 (1) victory over compatriot Maxime Cressy.
Those eight account for a quarter of the 32 players in the third round, the most for the United States at the grass-court Grand Slam tournament since 1995. It's also the most at any major since the 1996 U.S. Open.
The match on No. 3 Court was completed after being suspended Thursday evening at 6-4, 6-4.
The 29-year-old Sock is a three-time Grand Slam champion in doubles with two of those titles coming at Wimbledon.
The 103rd-ranked Sock will next face fellow qualifier Jason Kubler of Australia.
Frances Tiafoe reached the fourth round at Wimbledon for the first time with a 3-6, 7-6 (1), 7-6 (3), 6-4 victory over Alexander Bublik of Kazakhstan.
The 23rd-seeded American is making his fifth appearance at the All England Club.
Bublik hit 25 aces but also had 13 double-faults, including on match point.
Tiafoe will next face either Ugo Humbert and David Goffin for a shot at the quarterfinals.
The 24-year-old Tiafoe's best performance at a Grand Slam tournament was reaching the quarterfinals at the 2019 Australian Open.
Jelena Ostapenko advanced to the fourth round after winning 12 of the last 13 games against Irina-Camelia Begu.
The 2017 French Open champion from Latvia beat Begu 3-6, 6-1, 6-1 on No. 3 Court.
The 12th-seeded Ostapenko trailed 6-3, 1-0 when she turned things around. She won nine straight games to take a 3-0 lead in the deciding set before Begu was able to hold serve again.
Ostapenko then had to save a break point in the next game before taking a 4-1 lead.
Ostapenko reached the semifinals at the All England Club in 2018 and last week reached the final at the grass-court warmup tournament in Eastbourne, England.