Personal Laws In The Islamic World
A survey conducted by the Muslims for Secular Democracy (MSD) on Family (Personal) Laws and Population Control policies in Muslim-majority countries.
In many Muslim countries, including those which call themselves Islamic states, family laws have been revised in respect of minimum age of marriage, polygamy, divorce, maintenance etc.
Schools of Fiqh: The Maliki school is the predominant madhhab in Algeria. There is an Ibadi minority.
Constitutional Status of Islam(ic Law): The current Constitution was adopted on 19th November 1976 and has been amended several times, with the last revisions approved by referendum in November and signed into law in December 1996. Article 2 of the Constitution provides that Islam is the religion of the State.
- The minimum marriage age is 21 years for men and 18 for women, with scope for judicial discretion if necessity or benefit is established. Compulsion by the marriage guardian, whether the
wali is the father or anyone else, is expressly forbidden, as is giving a woman into marriage without her consent.
- On polygamy, classical injunctions regarding the equal treatment of cowives are reiterated, with the additional proviso that the reason for contracting a polygamous marriage must be justified. It is not stated exactly how a ‘just reason’ is defined. Prior notification of existing and future wives is required by the law. Any wife in a polygamous union may initiate legal action against her husband in case of harm
(darar) or petition for divorce if her consent was not obtained.
- Divorce is only established by a judgement of the court, and must be preceded by reconciliation efforts by the judge. Efforts at reconciliation are not to exceed three months.
- If the wife is granted custody of the children, the husband must provide for their accommodation in keeping with his means. A divorcée is entitled to maintenance during her waiting period, a provision adapted from the Hanafi school.
Schools of Fiqh: The Hanafi school is the predominant madhhab in Bangladesh.
Constitutional Status of Islam(ic Law): The Constitution was adopted on 4 November 1972. An amendment to the Constitution under President Ziaur Rahman in 1977 removed the principle of secularism that had been enshrined in Part II: Fundamental State Policy, replacing it with "absolute trust and faith in Almighty Allah." The Eighth Amendment of 1988 inserted Article 2A, affirming that "[t]he state religion of the Republic is Islam, but other religions may be practised in peace and harmony in the republic." Some women’s groups challenged this move on the grounds that it risked
exposing women to discriminatory laws.
- As elsewhere in South Asia, much of the Muslim personal law is unlegislated, the basis for the law being classical Hanafi fiqh except where this has been amended by legislation.
- The minimum ages of marriage are 21 for men and 18 for women. The legislation provides penal sanctions for those who knowingly participate in the contracting of an under-age marriage, but does not invalidate such marriages.
- The Muslim Marriages and Divorces (Registration) Act 1974 enacted to strengthen the inducements for civil registration states that "every marriage solemnised under Muslim law shall be registered in accordance with the provisions of this Act" and establishes the licensing of
Nikah Registrars. The punishment for not registering a marriage is a prison sentence and/or a fine.
- The Bangladeshi Muslim Family Laws Ordinance, based on the Pakistani MFLO of 1961, has incorporated some amendments to the original legislation. This includes the application process for contracting polygamous marriages, the application process itself remaining the same (i.e., requiring the reasons for wanting to contract a polygamous marriage and certification attesting to the existing wife’s or wives’ consent).
Schools of Fiqh: The Hanafi school is the predominant school of fiqh. Earlier on, Egypt was the home of the Shafi’i school and under the Fatimids, the ruling classes were Isma’ili.
Constitutional Status of Islam(ic Law): Article 2 of the Constitution that was adopted on 11 September 1971 and amended by referendum in May 1980 reads in full: "Islam is the religion of the State and Arabic its official language. Islamic jurisprudence is the principal source of legislation."
- The minimum marriage age is 18 for males and 16 for females (lunar calendar). Registration of marriage is compulsory.
- Polygamy is permissible only with notification of the existing and intended wives. The existing wife may obtain a judicial dissolution on grounds of material or moral harm up to one year from the date of her knowledge of her husband’s polygamous union if such harm makes cohabitation as husband and wife impossible.
- Talaq expressed indirectly, while intoxicated or under coercion, or conditionally with the intent of forcing the taking of some action has no effect. A
talaq to which a number is added verbally or by gesture is effective only as a single and revocable
talaq, except for the third of three… A written and notarised certification of
talaq must be produced within thirty days of repudiation and the notary must forward a copy of the certificate to the wife.
- A divorcée repudiated by her husband without cause or consent on her part is entitled to maintenance during her ‘idda and compensation (mut’a al-talaq) of at least two years’ maintenance (with consideration for the husband’s means, the circumstances of the divorce, and the length of the marriage); no upper limit for compensation is stipulated. Maintenance claims for the ‘idda period can be heard up to one year from the date of the divorce. A divorcing husband must provide independent accommodation for his former wife who has custody of their minor children.
Schools of Fiqh: The predominant madhhab is the Hanafi, with sizeable Shafi’i, Ja’fari and Isma’ili minorities. India’s minority religious communities also include Sikhs, Jains, Buddhists, Christians and Jews.
Constitutional Status of Islam(ic Law): The Indian Constitution was adopted on 26th November 1949 and has been amended many times. The preamble of the Constitution affirms that India is a "sovereign socialist secular democratic republic".
- With the exception of some enactments, most of the personal law applicable to Indian Muslims is uncodified and administered by state courts on the basis of Indo-Muslim judicial precedents. With one exception, the legislation regulating Islamic family law dates from the period of British colonial rule.
- The Muslim Personal Law (Shari’at) Application Act 1937 directs the application of Muslim Personal Law to Muslims in a number of different areas mainly related to family law.
- Muslim personal law is applied by the regular court system. As the majority of Muslims are Hanafi, courts presume that
litigants are Hanafi unless the contrary is established.
- As the Act currently stands in India (amended by Act 2 of 1978), the minimum marriage age is 21 for men and 18 for women. However, as registration is not compulsory in India, and as the Act does not instruct the dissolution of under-age marriages, such unions are not rendered
- The Registration of Muhammedan Marriages and Divorces Act 1876 is still in operation in Bihar and West Bengal. Other states of the federation also have similar Acts, and there are facilities for voluntary registration. However, registration is not a requirement in India.
- With regard to polygamy, the Criminal Procedure Code establishes that a woman who refuses to live with her husband on just grounds will still be entitled to maintenance and those just grounds, as defined in the Code, include the contracting of a polygamous marriage by the husband, even if the personal law applicable to the parties permits polygamy. This
provisio only actually applies to Muslims as polygamy has been abolished for all other communities.
- The Muslim husband retains the right to repudiate his wife extra-judicially, and from the available sources it appears that the most common form of divorce is the triple talaq. The stance of the pre-and post-independence courts has generally been to accept extra-judicial repudiation as "good in law, bad in theology".
Schools of Fiqh: The majority of the population is Shafi’i Muslim. There are also Ahmadi minorities. The other recognised religious minorities are Roman Catholic, Protestant, Hindu and Buddhist. There are also significant minorities following tribal religions; they are not afforded any official recognition.
Constitutional Status of Islam(ic Law): The Constitution was promulgated in August 1945. It does not adopt any official religion, but Article 29(1) provides that "the State is based upon the belief in the One, Supreme God", also embodied in the Pancasila. Article 29(2) guarantees freedom of religion.
- The minimum marriage age is 19 for males and 16 for females, with provision for marriage below the minimum age, subject to judicial discretion and parental consent.
- Marriage registration is obligatory; the Marriage Registrar Office of the Department of Religious Affairs is responsible for the registration of Muslim marriages and the Civil Marriage Registrar Office of the Department of Internal Affairs for all other marriages.
- The basis of marriage is considered monogamy, but the Marriage Law does not prohibit polygamy for those religions that allow it (Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism). Polygamy is permissible with the consent of the existing wife or wives and with judicial permission, by fulfilling conditions specified by law, i.e., proof of financial capacity, safeguards that husband will treat wives and children equally; and a court inquiry into the validity of the reasons for wishing to contract a polygamous marriage (e.g., the existing
wife’s physical disfigurement, infertility, incurable disease).
- The law specifies that both spouses are equal and both are responsible for maintaining the home and caring for children.
- The Marriage Law provides that divorce shall be carried out only before a Court of Law, after the Court has endeavoured to reconcile the parties. A husband married under Islamic law may submit a letter notifying the religious court of his intention to divorce and giving his reasons. If the husband’s reasons accord with any of the six grounds for judicial divorce outlined in the Marriage Law and the court determines that reconciliation is not possible, the court will grant a session in order to witness the divorce. Either spouse may seek a judicial divorce (preceded by reconciliation efforts by the judge) on specified grounds.
- Property acquired during marriage is considered joint property, although the Marriage Law only directs that division is according to the law applicable to the parties.
Schools of Fiqh: The Ja’fari school is the predominant madhhab in Iran. There are also Hanafi Muslim minorities, as well as Zoroastrian, Baha’i, Christian and Jewish minorities. The officially recognised religions are Sunni Islam, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, and various Christian denominations. Under a 1933 law relating to the rights of non-Shi’i Iranians, courts are to apply the personal status laws applicable to the litigants belonging to officially recognised religions.
Constitutional Status of Islam(ic Law): The current Constitution was adopted on 2nd-3rd December 1979, with significant revisions expanding presidential powers and eliminating the prime ministership in 1989. Article 4 provides that all civil, penal, financial, economic, administrative, cultural, military, political, and any other laws must be based on Islamic criteria. Article 12 provides that the official state religion is Islam and the twelver Ja’fari school; other schools of law are to be accorded full respect and freedom of religious practice, including matters of personal status.
- The Civil Code provides that marriage before puberty is invalid unless authorised by the natural guardian. When authorized before puberty, minimum age is nine.
- The Identity Office must be notified of all temporary or permanent marriages and their dissolution. Temporary marriage is permitted, and must be for fixed time period.
- Polygamy is permitted.
- A 12-article law on marriage and divorce passed in 1986 allows the wife the right to obtain a divorce if the husband marries without her permission or does not treat co-wives equitably in the court’s assessment.
- Talaq is governed by classical Shi’i law, requiring a specific formula and two male witnesses. A conditional formula of divorce is invalid. 1992 amendments provide that registration of divorce without a court certificate is illegal.
Schools of Fiqh: The Ja’fari and Hanafi are the predominant schools in Iraq. There are also Christian and small Jewish and Yezidi minorities.
Constitutional Status of Islam(ic Law): The provisional constitution was adopted on 22nd September 1968 and came into effect from 16th July 1970. Article 4 of the current provisional constitution declares Islam the state religion. (A new constitution was drafted in 1990 but was not adopted.)
- The minimum marriage age is 18 for men and women; judicial permission for under-age marriages may be granted at 15 years if fitness, physical capacity and guardian’s consent (unless the guardian’s objection is considered unreasonable) are established.
- Polygamy is only permitted by judicial permission, obtainable on two conditions; the husband must show some lawful benefit and financial ability to support more than one wife. Permission is not to be granted if the judge fears unequal treatment of co-wives. The ILPS provides penalties of imprisonment and/or fines for non-compliance
- Talaq must be confirmed by the Shari’a Court’s judgement or registered with the Court during the ‘idda period. Talaq by a man who is intoxicated, insane, feeble-minded, under coercion, enraged (madhush), or seriously ill or in death sickness is ineffective, as is talaq that is not immediate or is conditional or in the form of an oath. All talaqs are deemed single and revocable except the third of three.
Schools of Fiqh: The predominant madhhab is the Hanafi, and there are sizeable Ja’fari and Isma’ili minorities. In 1974, then-Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto finally conceded to a long-standing campaign waged by conservative religious elements agitating for the official designation of Ahmadis as non-Muslims.
Constitutional Status of Islam(ic Law): The third Constitution was adopted on 10th April 1973, suspended in 1977, and re-instituted in 1985; it has undergone numerous amendments over time. It was suspended again in 1999 and remained suspended at the time of writing. Article 1 of the Constitution declares that Pakistan shall be known as "the Islamic Republic of Pakistan" and Article 2 declares Islam the state religion. In 1985, the Objectives Resolution contained in the preamble of
the Constitution was made a substantive provision by the insertion of Article 2A, thereby requiring all laws to be brought into consonance with the Qur’an and sunnah.
- The minimum marriage age as the Act currently stands is 18 for males and 16 for females. Despite the provision of penalties for contracting underage marriages, such unions are not rendered invalid.
- The Muslim Family Laws Ordinance 1961 introduced reforms to various aspects of the classical law. The reforms concern the registration of marriage and divorce, inheritance rights of orphaned grandchildren, restrictions on polygamy, consideration of every
talaq (except the third of three) as single and revocable, formalisation of reconciliation procedures in disputes relating to maintenance or dissolution of marriage, and recovery of
mahr, along with specified penalties for non-compliance. The MFLO introduced marriage registration and provides for penalties of fines or imprisonment for failure to register.
- The MFLO also instituted some limited reforms in the law relating to polygamy, with the introduction of the requirement that the husband must submit an application and pay a fee to the local Union Council in order to obtain prior written permission for contracting a polygamous marriage. The application must state the reasons for the proposed marriage and indicate whether the applicant has obtained the consent of the existing wife or wives. The chairman of the Union Council forms an Arbitration Council with representatives of the existing wife or wives and the applicant in order to determine the necessity of the proposed marriage. The penalty for contracting a polygamous marriage without prior permission is that the husband must immediately pay the entire dower to the existing wife or wives as well as being subject to a fine and/or imprisonment; any polygamous marriage contracted without the Union Council’s approval cannot be registered under the MFLO.
- The MFLO requires that the divorcing husband shall, as soon as possible after a
talaq pronounced "in any form whatsoever", give the chairman of the Union Council notice in writing. The chairman is to supply a copy of the notice to the wife. Non-compliance is punishable by imprisonment and/or a
fine. Within thirty days of receipt of the notice of repudiation, the chairman must constitute an Arbitration Council in order to take steps to bring about a reconciliation. Should that fail, a
talaq that is not revoked, either expressly or implicitly, takes effect after the expiry of ninety days from the day on which the notice of repudiation was delivered to the chairman. If the wife is pregnant at the time of the pronouncement of
talaq, the talaq does not take effect until ninety days have elapsed or the
end of the pregnancy, whichever is later.
Schools of Fiqh: The Maliki school is the predominant madhhab in Libya. Libya also has a small Christian minority.
Constitutional Status of Islam(ic Law): A Constitutional Proclamation was issued on 11th December 1969 and amended on 2nd March 1977. Article 2 declares Islam the official state religion. The state also protects religious freedoms "in accordance with established customs"… Article 2 of The Declaration on the Establishment of the Authority of the People issued in March 1977 provides that "[t]he Holy Qur’an is the Constitution of the Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya".
- The minimum marriage age is 20 years for men and women. There is scope for judicial discretion on grounds of benefit or necessity and with the
wali’s consent, though no minimum age is specified. Marriage registration is obligatory.
- Polygamy is permitted with prior judicial permission, and on grounds of the husband’s financial and physical ability. Amendments to the law on polygamy also permit the husband to marry polygamously with the written agreement of the first wife, or with judicial permission granted for serious
- Maintenance is the husband’s duty, within the limits of his ability, unless he is in hardship and his wife is wealthy. Either spouse may obtain a maintenance order, or be awarded interim maintenance during a suit if the plaintiff appears to be eligible according to a provision which clearly diverges from classical rules of Islamic law. No maximum time limit is specified for claiming arrears of maintenance.
- With reference to divorce, Article 28 of the Code states that "[i]n all cases, divorce shall not be established except by a decree by the relevant court".
Talaq uttered by a minor, insane, demented or coerced husband or without deliberate intent is invalid, as is
talaq that is suspended or conditional. Any talaq to which a number is attached is considered single revocable (except the third of three).
- Most of the grounds for judicial divorce are available to men as well as women. Judicial divorce may be obtained if the parties do not agree to
talaq by mutual consent and arbitration and reconciliation efforts fail and harm is established.
- The divorcing husband must pay his wife maintenance for the ‘idda, and for children in her custody. Compensation to the wife can be awarded by the court if the husband is considered to bear the responsibility for the causes of a talaq. (Source: Except in case of Malaysia, the source for other countries is from http://www.law.emory.edu/IFL/legal/)
Schools of Fiqh: The majority of Muslims are Shafi’i, with Hanafi minorities.
Constitutional Status of Islam(ic Law): The Constitution was adopted on 31st August 1957 and has been amended several times. Article 3(1) declares Islam the official state religion as well as guarantees religious freedom. Articles 3(3) and (5) provide that the Ruler of each State is the head of the religion of Islam by the Constitution of that State. In the absence of a Muslim ruler (in the States of Malacca, Penang, Sabah and Sarawak) or in the Federal Territories (Kuala Lumpur and Labuan) Yang di-Pertuan Agong (Head of State) is declared the head of the religion of Islam.
- You must be at least eighteen (18) years old
- a. If you are a female who is under eighteen (18) years old but above sixteen (16) years old , you can marry if you are able to obtain a special marriage licence granted by the Chief Minister.
- b. If you marry without such a special marriage licence, then your marriage is void.
- A marriage which is valid under any law, religion, custom or usage under which it was solemnized prior to 1st March 1982 is deemed registered under the Act.
- After 1st March 1982, every marriage must be registered in accordance with the Act by a Registrar/Assistant Registrar. No marriage under the law, religion, custom or usage maybe solemnized except in accordance with the Act.
- A person who is lawfully married before 1st March 1982 is not lawfully allowed to marry any other person after that date. Such person's spouse will be regarded as lawfully wedded and will have the right to inheritance regardless of whether the marriage was registered or not.
- Once a marriage is registered or deemed to be registered under the Act, it will be a legal and binding monogamous marriage which will continue until:
- a. one of the parties dies; or
- b. a divorce or nullity decree is granted by a court of competent jurisdiction.
- Neither party can marry again until the marriage is terminated by death, divorce or a decree of nullity. If during the continuance of such marriage, a party marries again, then he/she will be deemed to have committed the offense of bigamy under the Penal Code for which he/she may be liable to a fine and imprisonment of up to a maximum of seven (7) years. The subsequent marriage is also deemed null and void.
- A divorce may be granted only by a court. You may petition for a divorce:
- a. by mutual consent, i.e. both parties consent to the divorce, by way of a joint petition; or
- b. if there is no mutual consent, by way of a contested petition.
(Source: Information compiled & extracts from Bar Council Malaysia).
Schools of Fiqh: The Hanafi school is the predominant madhhab in Syria, and there are Ja’fari, Druze, Isma’ili and ‘Alawi minorities.
Constitutional Status of Islam(ic Law): The Constitution was adopted on 13th March 1973. Article 3(1) declares that the religion of the President of the Republic shall be Islam. Article 3(2) declares Islamic jurisprudence a main source of legislation.
- The minimum marriage age is 18 years for males and 17 for females, with scope for judicial discretion for males of 15 years and females of 13 years if either the father or grandfather serving as
wali consents and the parties appear physically able. If the court finds incompatibility in age between betrothed parties, the judge may withhold permission for marriage.
- Marriage registration is obligatory and applications for marriage must be submitted to the judge, requiring documentation attesting to identity, age, residence, guardian’s identity, medical certificate, civil status, etc. of the betrothed parties.
- The judge may refuse permission for a polygamous marriage unless the husband is able to establish lawful cause and financial capacity. The wife’s financial rights are forfeit if she works outside the home without her husband’s consent or if she is deemed disobedient due to leaving the matrimonial home without lawful justification or refusing to cohabit with her husband.
- Talaq uttered while intoxicated, disoriented/enraged, under coercion, during death sickness or grave illness, or in order to coerce is ineffective.
Talaq to which a number is attached shall be considered a single irrevocable repudiation (except the third of three).
- Either spouse may apply for a judicial divorce on grounds of discord causing such harm as makes cohabitation impossible (after reconciliation efforts). The divorced wife may be awarded compensation of up to three years’ maintenance (in addition to the maintenance owed her during her ‘idda) if the judge finds the husband’s exercise of talaq to have been arbitrary.
Schools of Fiqh: The Maliki school is the predominant madhhab in Tunisia.
Constitutional Status of Islam(ic Law): The Constitution was adopted 1 June 1959. Article 1 declares Islam the state religion, and Article 38 provides that the President of the Republic must be a Muslim.
- The minimum marriage age is 20 years for males and 17 years for females. There is scope for judicial discretion with the
wali’s consent and for compelling reasons and apparent benefit for both parties.
- Registration is governed by the Civil Status Act 1957. Under its terms, only a formal document shall prove the existence of marriage. Unregistered marriages are deemed void.
- Polygamy is prohibited; penal sanctions for the polygamous husband and the wife who knowingly enters into a polygamous marriage are one year’s prison sentence and/or a fine.
- Talaq or extra-judicial divorce are prohibited. An irrevocable divorce becomes a permanent impediment to remarriage between divorced spouses. Judicial divorce is available, after reconciliation efforts, at the request of either party.
It is evident from the above examples that in most Muslim majority countries, including those that claim to be run on Islamic principles, instant divorce is prohibited. Similarly, polygamy is either prohibited or is permissible under specific circumstances and only after permission has been obtained from the courts and the existing wife. Therefore, there is absolutely no justification for these practices to be permitted in India: they must be prohibited. (Our objection is not to the concept of
divorce, per se, but to the practice among some Muslim sects in India of instant divorce).
In short, it is simply not true that what goes in the name of ‘Muslim Personal Law’ in India are God-given laws that are immutable and all Muslims are obliged to follow them.
Family planning or population control is an important element of state policy in many Muslim countries. In fact, in international circles, Iran and Indonesia are often cited as being the best examples of birth control campaigns in the developing world.
Here is what a UNESCO document says about population control programme in Iran:
“Following the ceasefire with Iraq in 1988, the Ministry of Health and Medical Education initiated in bringing the problem of unprecedented rapid population growth to the attention of the leader of the Islamic Revolution, the late Imam Khomeini. The Imam's blessing sparked discussions on population and family planning and led to organising a seminar in Mashad in 1988. A principal conclusion of this seminar was the need for a multidimensional policy for population control.
“Despite the emphasis of Islam on the values of family formation and procreation, most of Islam's religious leaders have accepted in principle the right of couples to limit or space their pregnancies using the barrier methods or withdrawal provided both partners consent to the practice.
“Since the reactivation of the national family planning programme in 1989, the Ministry has been able to secure written proclamations (fatwa) from the incumbent supreme spiritual leader and several other prominent Ayatollahs regarding specific methods such as vasectomy, tubectomy, condoms, pills, IUD and withdrawal.
“Today, there is no major legal or religious obstacle to the promotion and delivery of family planning methods and services except abortion, which is not recognised as a proper means for birth control. However, abortion can be resorted to at the recommendation of a qualified physician once the mother's life is at stake”.
Under the headline, Iran: Population Control - The Kindest Cut, the films distribution company, Chip Taylor Communications publicises a 15 minute documentary produced by the Australian ABC in 2000 as follows:
“When the fundamentalist Mullahs seized power in Iran back in 1979 they urged the country to pro-create. They wanted lots of young revolutionaries, and they wanted them now. Now Iran has a massive population problem. From 34 million in 1979 to 73 million today, over 60% are under 25. Now the Mullahs, in a remarkable display of political pragmatism, have made a complete turn by instituting one of the world's most enlightened population control programs.
“Vasectomies are encouraged and condoms are distributed free. Even sex education classes of surprising candor are now compulsory for all couples about to get married. This program investigates a surprising development in deeply religious Iran, providing a fascinating look at the contrast between secular and traditional Iran. Produced by ABC Australia. 2002 SCA 15 min.”
As early as 1959, government economists expressed concern about the negative impact of high population growth rates on the country's development efforts. In 1966, the government initiated a nationwide birth control program aimed at reducing the annual population growth rate to 2.5 percent or less. Since then state-run family planning clinics have distributed birth control information and contraceptives. These programs were somewhat successful in reducing the population growth rate, but in 1973 the rate began to increase again. Population control policies tended to be ineffective because most Egyptians, especially in rural areas, valued large families.
The following news item is a good illustration of Pakistan’s stance on the subject:
Pakistan Gives In To UN Population Control
ISLAMABAD, Nov. 30, 00 (CWNews.com/LSN.ca) - The Pakistan government has promised to make population control a "national priority" as it thanked the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) for a $35 million funding agreement…
The Pakistan English paper Dawn reports that Population Welfare Minister Attiya Inayatullah in announcing the UNFPA agreement said Pakistan has attained a fertility reduction, and that the maintenance of the population control measure is a national priority.
Pakistan's Business Recorder reported August 8 that the UNFPA met with Pakistani Health Minister Dr. Abdul Malik Kasi and conditionally offered $250 million in assistance for reproductive health projects. A Health Ministry spokesman said, "The UN official contended that if the children are imparted awareness of small families from an early age, it will help control population growth…"
The Pakistani Muslim culture, with its traditionally high regard for children and family, is certain to undergo major change as a result of its new cooperation with the UN depopulation agenda.
The importance Indonesia attaches to family planning is obvious from the fact that ten years ago they enacted a special legislation on the subject: “Law on Population Development and Prosperous Family of 1992”. The preamble to this law read:
Considering: a. whereas, the national development involves all dimensions and aspects of life, including the development of quantity and quality of the people and quality of the families to achieve prosperity, welfare, and happiness for the society.
b. whereas, a large and inappropriate population, and imbalanced with an environment ability to support and accommodate, could influence all segments of life of the society.
c. whereas, in view of the above points, quantity of the people, quality of the people and quality of the families as well as controlled mobility, developed and directed to form a robust source of human resource for national development and resilience.
d. whereas, in the effort to control quantity of the people, the development of quality of the people and quality of the families as well as the directing of the mobility of the people as mentioned above, it is
considered necessary to fix the population development and family prosperity with a law.
With view to: Article 5 paragraph (1) and Article 20 paragraph (1) of the 1945 Constitution. With the consent from the Republic of Indonesia Parliament.
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