England slumped to a 251-run defeat at Edgbaston, with spinner Moeen proving expensive with the ball – taking three wickets for 172 runs – while scoring just four with the bat.
Somerset's Leach – who scored 92 as nightwatchman in a warm-up Test against Ireland – has been drafted into the 12-man squad as Moeen's replacement.
Meanwhile, paceman Archer, who proved he had recovered from a side strain with a superb performance in a Sussex second XI match this week, is set to make his Test debut having replaced James Anderson, who has been ruled out with a calf injury.
Olly Stone has also missed out, with the Warwickshire bowler struggling with a back problem.
Joe Root's side made a strong start to the first Test, but supreme batting from Steve Smith (144 and 142) in both innings helped Australia claim a resounding victory.
England team to face Australia in the second Ashes Test -
Joe Root (captain), Jofra Archer, Jonny Bairstow, Stuart Broad, Rory Burns, Jos Buttler, Sam Curran, Joe Denly, Jack Leach, Jason Roy, Ben Stokes, Chris Woakes