In a June 2015 “letter to humanity about the Environment”, Pope Francis asks us to redefine our relationship with the world in “the language of fraternity and beauty”. For him, “the world” includes fellow humans and non-human living species. This call of unity between humanity and nature is an attempt to heal the wounds Western modernity has caused by equating civilisation with the goals of conquering wild nature or the “frontier”. Others across the world too internalised this instinct, leading to the globalisation of a ‘civilisational’ ethos founded on violence—against nature and fellow human beings.
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