While LGBT people were tortured and killed for centuries in Europe, India’s history is very different (see Same-Sex Love in India, ed. Ruth Vanita and Saleem Kidwai). The Victorian administrators who instituted Section 377 in colonised countries also introduced the idea of homosexuality as an unspeakable crime to be hidden. Educated Indians internalised shame and guilt about many Indian practices, from polygamy and matriliny to same-sex sexuality. However, earlier traditions did persist, often underground.