In the last few years, we have noticed tremendous improvement in the implementation of PPP or BOT (build-operate-transfer) schemes in power generation, particularly captive power projects. Again, for roads—the first sector where PPP really took off—the performance has turned out to be good. Now, we are experimenting with other projects. Considering that best practices of the private sector as well as the administrative strength of the public sector will be brought into play, I am pretty sure that infrastructure projects of a PPP variety will do well.
There are certain types of schemes that lend themselves to better implementation through partnerships, whereas some are best done through the departmental mechanism. That's because, by their very character, the departments are best tailored to implement them. For example, schemes for health, midday meals, mother-and-child development go through better if implemented by the departments. Many NGOs have come forward to partner in some of these schemes, but on a limited scale. So, while infrastructure partnerships with the private sector are doing very well, most of the social sector schemes through the government departments are doing better.
But NGOs do well only in the dissemination of information, not in direct implementation. By and large, NGOs have done well. At the same time, you cannot say they are the panacea for everything—just as privatisation is not the panacea to attain efficiency. Much depends on the people who run the NGOs. For example, NGOs working in the field of micro-finance and environment have done extremely well. A lot also depends on the determination and conviction of the people who are running the NGO. It is the same as the people who are heading government departments or PSUs.
Certainly, the government needs to upgrade its administrative...