Around 70 World leaders gathered in Paris will lead global commemorations on Sunday to mark 100 years since the end of World War I at a time of growing nationalism and diplomatic tensions. US and Russian Presidents Donald Trump and Vladimir Putin will mark the centenary of the 1918 Armistice in the French capital at 11 am local time (1000 GMT).
Ceremonies in New Zealand, Australia, India, Hong Kong and Myanmar marked the start of the memorial events worldwide for a conflict that involved millions of troops from colonised countries in Asia and Africa.
The leaders of Commonwealth nations -- whose forces were deployed under British command 100 years ago -- also sounded a message of peace and hope for the world in the new century.
"This was a war in which India was not directly involved yet our soldiers fought world over, just for the cause of peace," said Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi on Twitter on Sunday.
I have had the honour of paying tributes at the Neuve-Chapelle Memorial in France and at the memorial in Israel's Haifa, places associated with India's role in the First World War.— Narendra Modi (@narendramodi) November 11, 2018
When PM @netanyahu came to India, we paid tributes at the Teen Murti-Haifa Chowk. pic.twitter.com/6u6hcaUUt9
"For our tomorrows, they gave their today," Australian Prime Minister Scott Morrison told people gathered at the Remembrance Day national ceremony in Canberra.
The Paris commemorations, centred on the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier beneath the Arc de Triomphe, are set to feature warnings about the modern-day danger of nationalism.
"This day is not just about remembering, but should be about a call to action," German Chancellor Angela Merkel said on Saturday after visiting the forest clearing in northeastern France where the Armistice was signed.
Merkel will give the opening address alongside UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres at a conference called the Paris Peace Forum which will take place after a memorial service on the Champs-Elysees on Sunday morning.
Conceived by French President Emmanuel Macron, the Forum is intended to highlight the importance of international institutions in helping resolve conflicts, avert wars and spread prosperity.
British Prime Minister Theresa May and Queen Elizabeth will attend a separate event in London.
Despite the show of unity at the Arc de Triomphe, where school children will read out messages written by soldiers in eight languages, tensions are expected to lurk beneath the surface.
US President Donald Trump, whose hardline nationalism has badly shaken the Western alliance, arrived in Paris on Friday criticising host Macron for being "insulting." Trump took umbrage at a recent interview in which Macron talked about the need for a European army and listed the US along with Russia and China as a threat to national security.
The "America First" leader, who faced criticism on Saturday for cancelling a trip to an American cemetery because of the rainy weather, will snub the Paris Peace Forum.
Other attendees of the memorial service and Forum include Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan, Canadian premier Justin Trudeau and Israel's Benyamin Netanyahu, as well as Putin.
With far-right nationalist politicians coming to power from Brazil to Italy to Austria, 40-year-old centrist Macron is set to invoke the war to make the case for international cooperation.
"We want to make these commemorations a time to reflect on the present, not just the past, so that they have a meaning for us today," an aide to Macron said earlier this week.
He will deliver a short speech during Sunday's ceremony, which organisers have made deliberately international and cross-cultural.
The French-born Chinese-American cellist Yo-yo Ma will perform, as will West African singer Angelique Kidjo, and a European youth orchestra with a Russian conductor.
Some 10,000 police have been drafted in to ensure maximum security in a city repeatedly targeted by jihadists since 2015.
Macron is also set to speak later at UN cultural body UNESCO and at the Peace Forum.
The Forum is part of the "fightback" against nationalism worldwide, chief organiser Justin Vaisse told AFP as he played down the significance of Trump's decision not to attend.
"The aim of the forum is to show that there are lots of forces in the international system -- states, NGOs, foundations, intellectuals, companies -- who believe we need a world of rules, an open world and a multilateral world," he said.
About 70 current-day nations were involved in the conflict that had six empires and colonial powers at its heart: Austria-Hungary, Britain, France, Germany, Russia and the Ottoman Empire.
Around 10 million soldiers are generally estimated to have been killed during the fighting and more than double that number wounded overall.
Between five and 10 million civilians are estimated to have been killed.
In Britain, church bells are set to ring out across the country at 11 am, at the same time as a national remembrance service at the Cenotaph in London.(AFP)
As the guns fell silent in 1918, World War I victors all agreed on one thing: Germany must pay.
How much was a matter of debate but there was never any doubt that the post-war settlement enshrined in the Treaty of Versailles was going to be punitive.
Germany did pay, but it was not alone. A century on, the world lives with the consequences of a peace accord that, even at the time, was criticised as making another war inevitable in Europe, a continent which had dominated the world for centuries.
Economist JM Keynes, then a British Treasury official, resigned rather than be associated with a treaty he denounced as "Carthaginian" in its harshness. French Marshal Ferdinand Foch judged it "not so much a peace as a 20-year armistice".
The "war to end all wars" turned out to be the opposite. By ensuring Germany's economic ruin and political humiliation, the post-war settlement provided fertile ground for the rise of Nazism and its horrors.
More broadly the aftermath of World War I was a period of rapid social progress in much of the industrialised world. This was most notable in terms of women's right to vote, which, in the popular memory, is often seen as having been "earned" through female participation in war-related activities.
Less obvious positive legacies of a war which left millions maimed or traumatised were greater social acceptance of the disabled and the destigmatisation of mental illness.
The war also spurred new waves of creativity in the arts.
Poetry was revived as an art form across the world; Dadaism, the avant-garde art movement, was born and led in turn to Surrealism.
Jazz, brought to Europe by American soldiers, became the soundtrack for the escapism and innovation of the "roaring '20s".
(With AFP Inputs)
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