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1. Whether the Ninety-Third Amendment of the Constitution is against the "basic structure" of the Constitution?
The Constitution (Ninety-Third Amendment) Act, 2005 does not violate the "basic structure" of the Constitution so far as it relates to the state maintained institutions and aided educational institutions. Question whether the Constitution (Ninety-Third Amendment) Act, 2005 would be constitutionally valid or not so far as "private unaided" educational institutions are concerned, is left open to be decided in an appropriate case. (Paragraph 79)
2. Whether Articles 15(4) and 15(5) are mutually contradictory, hence Article 15(5) is to be held ultra vires?
Article 15(5) is constitutionally valid and Articles 15(4) and 15(5) are not mutually contradictory. (Paragraph 100)
3. Whether exclusion of minority educational institutions from Article 15(5) is violative of Article 14 of Constitution?
Exclusion of minority educational institutions from Article 15(5) is not violative of Article 14 of the Constitution as the minority educational institutions, by themselves, are a separate class and their rights are protected by other constitutional provisions. (Paragraph 102)
4. Whether the Constitutional Amendment followed the procedure prescribed under Article 368 of the Constitution?
The Ninety-Third Amendment of the Constitution does not affect the executive power of the State under Article 162 of the Constitution and hence, procedure prescribed under Proviso to Article 368(2) is not required to be followed. (Paragraph 103)
5. Whether the Act 5 of 2007 is constitutionally invalid in view of definition of "Backward Class" and whether the identification of such "Backward Class" based on "caste" is constitutionally valid?
Identification of "backward class" is not done solely based on caste. Other parameters are followed in identifying the backward class. Therefore, Act 5 of 2007 is not invalid for this reason. (Paragraph 142)
6. Whether "Creamy Layer" is to be excluded from SEBCs?
"Creamy Layer" is to be excluded from SEBCs. The identification of SEBCs will not be complete and without the exclusion of "creamy layer" such identification may not be valid under Article 15(1) of the Constitution. (Paragraph 152)
7. What should be the para-meters for determining the "creamy layer" group?
The parameters contained in the Office Memorandum issued by the Government of India, Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions (Department of Personnel and Training) on 08.09.1993 may be applied. And the definition of "Other Backward Classes" under Section 2(g) of the Act 5 of 2007 should be deemed to mean class or classes of citizens who are socially and educationally backward, and so determined by the Central Government; and if the determination is with reference to caste, then the backward class shall be after excluding the creamy layer. (Paragraphs 153 and 155)
8. Whether the "creamy layer" principle is applicable to Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes?
"Creamy Layer" principle is not applicable to Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. (Paragraph 163)
9. Whether the principles laid down by the United States Supreme Court for affirmative action such as "suspect legislation", "strict scrutiny" and "compelling State necessity" are applicable to principles of reservation or other affirmative action contemplated under Article 15(5) of the Constitution?
The principles laid down by the United States Supreme Court such as "suspect legislation", "strict scrutiny" and "compelling State necessity" are not applicable for challenging the validity of Act 5 of 2007 or reservations or other affirmative action contemplated under Article 15(5) of the Constitution. (Paragraphs 184)
10. Whether delegation of power to the Union Government to determine as to who shall be the backward class is constitutionally valid?
The delegation of power to the Union Government to determine as to who shall be the "other backward classes" is not excessive delegation. Such delegation is constitutionally valid. (Paragraph 186)
11. Whether the Act is invalid as there is no time limit prescribed for its operation and no periodical review is contemplated?
The Act 5 of 2007 is not invalid for the reason that there is no time limit prescribed for its operation, but a review can be made after a period of 10 years. (Paragraph 187)
12. What shall be the educational standard to be prescribed to find out whether any class is educationally backward? The contention that educational standard of matriculation or (10+2) should be the benchmark to find out whether any class is educationally backward is rejected. (Paragraph 189)
13. Whether the quantum of reservation provided for in the Act is valid and whether 27% of seats for SEBC was required to be reserved?
27% of seats for other backward classes is not illegal and the Parliament must be deemed to have taken into consideration all relevant circumstances when fixing the 27% reservation. (Paragraph 193)
These Writ Petitions are disposed off in light of the above findings, and the "Other Backward Classes" defined in Section 2(g) of Act 5 of 2007 is to be read as "Socially and Educationally Backward Classes" other than Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, determined as 'Other Backward Classes' by the Central Government and if such determination is with reference to caste, it shall exclude "Creamy Layer" from among such caste. In Contempt Petition (Civil) No. 112/2007 in Writ Petition (C) No. 265/2006, no orders are required. It is dismissed.
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