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BPC-157 Peptide Therapy | A-Z Guide

Curious about BPC-157 peptide therapy? Inside, we detail everything you need to know about the research chemical – dosing, benefits, side effects, and more.

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BPC Peptides
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This in-depth guide on BPC-157 peptide therapy was crafted by the research team at Peptides.org – the premier source for all information about research peptides, SARMs, and more.

For those interested in BPC-157 peptide and its capabilities, this is your go-to source. Whether you are just beginning to study BPC-157 or are a veteran researcher, this review will be of interest to you. 

Pulling from the latest peer-reviewed studies, we will break down all potential benefits, side effects, and best handling guidelines. Plus, we will explore the unique features of BPC-157 nasal sprays, capsules, and injections. We will even cover the legal climate of this and other research peptides so that you can proceed with your investigations in full confidence.

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Lastly, we will provide you with our top recommendation for purchasing premium BPC-157 online. 

We have thoroughly scoured the market to bring you the very best names in research peptide sales.

What is BPC-157? 

BPC-157 (Body Protection Compound-157), also called bepecin, is a synthetic pentadecapeptide that has shown a range of therapeutic effects in various studies since its introduction in 1993 [1].

Derived from the endogenous protein known as body protection compound (BPC), the synthetic form is a partial sequence of the original that retains its full biological activity. Natural BPC is present in human gastric juices and essential to digestive health, strengthening and healing the gastrointestinal lining. It has been shown to stimulate angiogenesis, cellular repair, and tissue growth while reducing oxidative stress [1]. 

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BPC-157 is modified for greater stability than natural BPC and has systemic effects without the need for a carrier agent. While BPC is most active within the GI tract, research links BPC-157 with healing benefits in many other organs. Clinicians attribute this to its ability to rapidly increase fibroblast proliferation and vascular growth [1, 2]. 

Development

BPC-157 was first investigated as a potential treatment for inflammatory bowel disease due to its powerful anti-ulcer properties. However, it has not been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a medical product. Consequently, there is a relative lack of clinical data on BPC-157 use in humans. Nonetheless, studies to date indicate its tolerability and safety when handled by qualified professionals [2, 3]. 

This popular research peptide is of great clinical interest for its regenerative effects and positive safety profile. Common routes of administration include injection, nasal spray, and orally consumed capsules. Each method presents unique advantages, to be discussed below. 
 

What Does BPC-157 Do?

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BPC-157

Like naturally occurring BPC, BPC-157 is beneficial to the GI tract, healing lesions in the lining and protecting it from further damage. It displays anti-inflammatory and angiogenic benefits in multiple organ systems beyond the digestive tract, even at minimal doses [1].

The regenerative outcomes of BPC-157 have been documented in nervous and hepatic cells, as well as tendons, bones, and muscles. Its dramatic anti-inflammatory and angiogenic effects within the GI tract and throughout the body indicate its potential to combat metabolic, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases. Through its action on the central nervous system, BPC-157 also shows promise as a treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and depression [1, 2, 4].

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As a pleiotropic compound,  BPC-157’s effects are achieved through different biological mechanisms, namely the upregulation of various growth factors to promote blood vessel formation and tissue regeneration, also augmenting the immune and inflammatory responses [1, 3]. 

Routes of Administration

BPC-157 studies feature various routes of administration. Due to its high bioavailability when injected, injection has typically been the favored method. Standard BPC-157 is unstable with poor oral bioavailability. However, a more stable form called BPC-157 arginate has been newly developed that has high oral bioavailability and may enhance the peptide’s gastroprotective benefits [1].

Animal studies on BPC-157’s wound healing effects include topical application via creams and rinses. Lastly, emerging research suggests that nasal administration may elicit targeted neurological benefits [1, 5, 6].

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BPC-157 Clinical Trials and Research

Although substantial data on BPC-157 use in humans is lacking, current findings suggest  numerous therapeutic benefits with proper administration, most notably:

Gastrointestinal health 

Natural to gastric juices, BPC-157 is shown to have healing and protective effects throughout the GI tract. Originally developed as an anti-ulcer agent and treatment for inflammatory bowel disease, BPC-157 is considered an effective cytoprotective compound. It repairs lesions in the gut lining and maintains the mucosal barrier function [7, 8, 9].

Animal studies suggest its potential to treat gastrointestinal disorders, including short bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, and acute pancreatitis. It is also proven to be a novel mediator of the gut-brain axis, positively impacting global health through the central nervous system [8, 9,10].

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Wound healing 

BPC-157 facilitates healing beyond the gastrointestinal tract, accelerating injury recovery in tendons, bones, skin, ligaments, and muscles. It has been shown in rats to stimulate fibroblast proliferation, collagen production, and blood vessel formation. Increased collagen synthesis is also associated with anti-aging effects [1, 3, 8].

Angiogenesis

Consistently linked with angiogenic effects, BPC-157 promotes blood vessel growth by upregulating endothelial growth factor. This not only accelerates injury healing but may improve circulation and blood pressure with broad cardioprotective benefits. Animal studies indicate its potential to treat numerous cardiovascular diseases, including pulmonary hypertension, coronary occlusion, congestive heart failure, and deep vein thrombosis  [2, 3, 6].

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Neuroprotection 

BPC-157 is shown in rat models to protect the nervous system from damage caused by strokes and spinal cord injuries. It may also regulate neurotransmitters as a potential treatment for neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, Parkinson’s disease, and schizophrenia. Further areas of clinical interest include the treatment of multiple sclerosis and neuropathy  [1, 4, 10].

Antidote to drug toxicity

In animal studies, BPC-157 counteracts the toxicity of numerous drugs, such as alcohol, NSAIDs, neuroleptics, and insulin. This has been observed in multiple tissue types, including the liver, nervous system, GI tract, and cardiovascular system  [1, 4, 11].

Antioxidant properties

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BPC-157

BPC-157 is consistently shown in animal models to have acute anti-inflammatory effects. It is observed to suppress cytokine production and scavenge free radicals, combating oxidative stress in numerous organs. These include the brain, liver, lungs, and GI tract. In this capacity, it also has analgesic benefits [1, 2, 4, 8].

Growing data on BPC-157’s therapeutic applications suggests many further benefits beyond this review.

BPC-157 Safety and Side Effects

Bearing in mind that BPC-157 has not undergone safety trials for short or long-term use, current findings suggest that it has a positive safety profile. When correctly administered in animal and human subjects, it has evidenced no toxicity and good tolerability. In phase 1 clinical trials as a treatment for inflammatory bowel disease, these findings were supported. Indeed, one of its therapeutic attributes is the attenuation of drug toxicity [2, 11].  

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Nonetheless, several mild and transient adverse effects have been observed [11]:

•    Irritation at the site of injection
•    Fatigue
•    Nausea
•    Sweating
•    Light-headedness

Research peptides more broadly may also cause changes in appetite and blood pressure as well as headaches and dizziness. Adverse effects often subside with the course of treatment and are associated with low-quality peptide products from substandard sources. These products tend to contain harmful contaminants and mislabeled compounds [12].

Legitimate Source 

To ensure the safe administration of BPC-157 and other peptides, researchers are advised to purchase peptide products from retailers that comply with these standards of legitimacy [12]: 

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1.    All products should be marked as intended for use in solely research contexts.
2.    The retailer must not make direct medical claims or guarantees as to the benefits of administering the product. 
3.    The retailer must provide recent and authentic certificates of analysis (CoAs) signifying third-party laboratory screening for peptide purity and identity. 

When sourced from a retailer that meets these standards, BPC-157 may be safely administered following recommended procedures.

Handling 

Formal dosage indications are not yet established due to BPC-157’s lack of regulatory approval. However, clinical findings suggest certain parameters to which researchers should adhere for safety and efficacy. These will be discussed below.  

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Beyond dosage, proper handling involves safe peptide preparation and storage. Injectable BPC-157 is to be reconstituted using a sterile solvent and stored in a refrigeration unit to prevent contamination. The reconstitution process requires a specific set of materials and a careful method that we will further detail in the following sections. 

Lastly, researchers are encouraged to stay well-informed on all recent studies regarding BPC-157 and discontinue administration if severe side effects arise. Emerging research in the novel field of peptide therapeutics is constantly uncovering new benefits, practical tips, and insights into optimal administration methods.

Is BPC-157 Legal?

BPC-157, like many other research peptides, is legal for purchase, sale, and handling exclusively for research purposes. It is not available as a medical product per US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) precepts 

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The marketing of BPC-157 for medical purposes or human consumption is therefore illegal within the USA. Similar regulatory restrictions apply in Europe and the United Kingdom under the authority of the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) [12, 13, 14]. 

The regulatory deficit within the peptide industry has seen the rise of a global illicit peptide market wherein unauthorized vendors market contaminated and mislabeled products with false medical guarantees. While consumers of these products risk grave side effects, vendors are subject to legal penalties in the USA as well as the UK [12, 13, 14]. 

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Current Peptide Regulations

Due to the novel status of the peptide therapeutics arena, there are few quality control regulations in place even within the legal peptide market. Unfortunately, this presents a challenge for the approval of many peptide products to undergo clinical trials and distribution as medical goods.  

Nonetheless, marketing and clinical trial applications for peptide products are at an all-time high within the USA and are only projected to rise with the unprecedented growth of the global peptide therapeutics market. This expansion is attributable to the search for novel solutions to exponentially increasing rates of cancer and cardiometabolic diseases. The latter is particularly applicable to BPC-157 given its proven therapeutic effects on cardiovascular health and inflammatory response [15, 16].

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In turn, the FDA has shown marked efforts to establish guidelines for large-scale peptide production. These include fixed peptide impurity limits, proposed amendments to current regulations on biological products, and public dockets to gather information on the clinical pharmacology of peptides. The latter is intended to guide new regulatory measures on clinical trials for peptide therapeutics [17, 18, 19].

Until these pending reforms take hold, researchers must exercise caution to avoid unauthorized peptide retailers, purchasing only from legitimate vendors as outlined above. When sourced from a reputable party and handled by qualified researchers, BPC-157 is fully legal despite current regulatory setbacks. 

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BPC-157 Dosage and Cycle

As an unprescribed substance, BPC-157 does not have a set dosing protocol. Further, the majority of studies to date have involved animal subjects with dosages that are unscalable for humans. 

However, qualified experimental findings and a handful of human trials offer the following insights into safe and effective dosage and administration of BPC-157 peptide [1, 5, 6, 8, 20]: 

•    Studies have covered topical, oral, nasal, and parenteral delivery methods, including intramuscular and subcutaneous injections.
•    The optimal delivery method, dosage, and timing are subject to change with the therapeutic objective. For instance, studies of BPC-157’s bone healing in rat models indicate that its effectiveness is time- and dose-dependent. 
•    BPC-157 is present in human gastric fluids for up to 24 hours after administration.
•    Research suggests that topical or oral application may in some cases be the most effective, while nasal delivery shows the potential to target the central nervous system.
•    The average dose in rats is approximately 10mcg per kg, administered orally in drinking water. Although this dosage is not scalable for humans, clinicians have roughly followed this example in some human studies, typically not exceeding 1mg daily when injected.  
•    A phase 1 clinical trial involved oral administration of 1mg tablets from 1-6 times daily for two weeks.
•    Cycled dosing may be applicable. Studies have included dosage windows that range from 7-36 days followed by rest periods of about half the dosage time or equal duration.
•    To avoid adverse effects, it is advisable to start with a small dose and slowly increase, cycling as recommended by specialists.
•    BPC-157 has not been studied for continuous use.

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Researchers are advised to abide by these findings and follow recent studies on BPC-157 dosing and peptide therapy.

Sample BPC-157 Dosing Protocol

Based on available data, here is a sample BPC-157 dosing protocol for wound healing:

•    BPC-157 Dosage: 200mcg BPC-157 administered daily via subcutaneous injection
•    Course Duration: 25 days 
•    Notes: This BPC-157 protocol requires one BPC-157 5mg vial from our preferred retailer for a 25-day course on a single subject. 

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BPC-157

BPC-157 | Injectable vs. Nasal Spray vs. Capsules

When it comes to BPC-157 delivery methods, researchers have several options. Here, we will discuss the factors to consider when selecting the best format. Each has unique advantages in certain contexts.

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Bioavailability

Subcutaneous or intramuscular injections have customarily been regarded as the most bioavailable routes of peptide administration because of the relative instability and quick degradation of most peptides with alternative delivery methods. However, recent studies and advanced formulations may change this dynamic, particularly concerning BPC-157 use [1].

To solve the problem of BPC-157’s low oral bioavailability, clinicians have developed a highly stable form called BPC-157 arginate that exhibits excellent oral activity. The orally-consumed capsules have over 90% oral bioavailability in contrast to the 3% oral activity of standard BPC-157 acetate. This method may enhance the peptide’s GI benefits and is less invasive than injection [1].

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Additionally, ongoing studies have uncovered several distinct advantages of peptide nasal sprays. Also less invasive than injection and able to pass the blood-brain-barrier (BBB), intranasal administration exhibits comparable bioavailability, rapid onset, and both local and systemic effects. It is shown to specifically target the central nervous system (CNS) via the nose-to-brain pathway, overcoming the historical challenges of developing CNS therapeutics able to bypass the BBB [5].

Given BPC-157’s therapeutic potential in the contexts of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and neurological health, each of these delivery methods could readily apply. This leads us to the next important factor.

Therapeutic Context

Studies suggest that the optimal delivery method of BPC-157 may in most cases depend on the therapeutic target. For gastrointestinal effects, oral administration may be preferred. Targeted neurological treatments may be best suited to nasal sprays, while injections may be most efficient for global effects and the treatment of vascular disease [6, 7, 10].

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Additional factors to weigh include ease and comfort of administration. Nasal sprays and capsules are less invasive delivery methods than injection, and perhaps more fitting for regular use. Consequently, these less invasive formats may have more marketing appeal, increasing the likelihood of pharmaceutical development and FDA approval.

In summary, optimal BPC-157 administration routes are highly dependent on the treatment target. It is recommended that researchers stay abreast of current BPC-157 research to inform the best choice for specific uses. 

Where to Buy BPC-157 Online? 

Fortunately, no matter which format you choose, the team of experts at Peptides.org can direct you to your best option when buying BPC-157 online!

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The most exciting new developments in BPC-157 capsules made with stable BPC-157 arginate are the following advanced formulas from Peptide Sciences, a top name in peptide innovation.

•    Repair and Recovery Formula: Stable BPC-157 Arginate, Thymosin Beta-4 Fragment 

In addition to orally active  BPC-157 arginate, this potent healing formula features a derivative of thymosin beta-4 (TB4), also called TB-500, that is equally touted for its regenerative benefits.  

This option is a great choice for research on wound healing as well as the treatment of neurological, cardiovascular, and inflammatory diseases.

•    Gut Inflammation Formula: Stable BPC-157 Arginate, KPV, PEA, Tributyrin 

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This cutting-edge formula blends BPC-157 arginate with three anti-inflammatory compounds (KPV, tributyrin, and PEA) that synergistically combat multiple causes of oxidative stress in the GI tract. 

Researchers interested in gut health and inflammatory bowel disease are sure to love this advanced option. 

If injection is your preferred route of administration, Peptide Sciences also offers premium injectable BPC-157 in lyophilized powder form:

•    BPC-157 10mg 

Peptide Sciences is the favored peptide source of the world’s leading scientists due to its verified quality and high manufacturing standards, as well as great prices, international deliveries, and track record of outstanding customer service. Visit them today for quick and secure check-out and many available payment options! 

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If BPC-157 nasal spray is your choice, check out this option from PureRawz, another favorite brand among peptide experts. 

This premium nasal spray formula also partners stable BPC-157 with the potent healing peptide TB-500 for accelerated recovery and repair with global benefits. 

Investigations into injury recovery as well as targeted neurological benefits will appreciate this new release.

PureRawz wins top marks for its verified peptide purity with valid CoAs and quick global shipping on its wide catalog of top-caliber items. 

How to Reconstitute BPC-157

Best handling practices when injecting BPC-157 call for reconstituting it from powder lyophilized form to liquid with a sterile solvent. Experts advise the use of bacteriostatic water for this process.

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Bacteriostatic Water 

This solvent has a decreased risk of contamination, made with a natural preservative called benzyl alcohol and sterile water. The bacteriostat content fights bacterial growth to extend the shelf life of peptide solutions with proper storage, also thoroughly dissolving lyophilized compounds while maintaining peptide purity [21].

Materials 

Your lab should be equipped with these supplies to safely reconstitute BPC-157: 

•   Vial of bacteriostatic water
•    Vial of lyophilized BPC-157
•    Sterile syringe
•    Alcohol wipes
•    Extra sterile vials 

Reconstitution Process

The method of BPC-157 reconstitution is:

1.    Clean all supplies with alcohol wipes to prevent contamination.
2.    With the sterile syringe, withdraw the needed amount of bac water, typically around 1mL depending on the dose. 
3.    Gradually introduce the bac water into the peptide vial, allowing the powder to thoroughly dissolve. 
4.    Abstain from shaking or stirring, which can harm the peptides. Sonication may be used if available. When completely dissolved, the solution will be clear.
5.    In some cases, a stronger solvent may be needed.
6.    Excess solutions may be refrigerated and subsequently accessed for up to 28 days.
7.    Specific dosages and storage protocols may vary. Consult product literature.

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Bacteriostatic water, along with other supplies needed for injection of sermorelin, can be purchased from BacteriostaticWater.org. 

BPC-157 FAQ

How to Take BPC-157

BPC-157 may be taken in research settings according to dosage protocols and administration schedules that adhere to clinical guidelines. It should be sourced from legal suppliers that display valid quality testing reports from third-party labs. The administration should follow expert protocols regarding reconstitution and storage. 

How is BPC-157 Delivered?

The most common delivery methods are subcutaneous or intramuscular injections, nasal sprays, or oral capsules. Topical preparations are occasionally used. BPC-157 in arginate form is uniquely suited to oral administration in contrast to the vast majority of research peptides.

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The optimal delivery method depends largely on the therapeutic context. Outcomes are also time- and dose-dependent in most cases. As such, researchers are advised to consult relevant studies on BPC-157 administration to inform proper experimental design. 

Is BPC-157 Dangerous?

BPC-157 is shown to be safe when correctly administered, exhibiting no toxicity and good tolerability. This was notably confirmed in phase 1 clinical trials evaluating its utility to treat ulcerative colitis, involving oral administration. However, there is no substantial data currently available on BPC-157 use in humans for either short or long-term periods. It is highly recommended to purchase BPC-157 exclusively from legitimate retailers to eliminate the risk of contamination and serious side effects.

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Is BPC-157 a Steroid?

BPC-157 is not a steroid, but a peptide. While steroids are comprised of lipids, peptides are made of amino acid chains. As such, they are different types of molecules and have unique physiological functions. There may be some overlap in results due to the anabolic effects of steroids and the upregulation of growth factors as seen in BPC-157 studies. However, they are entirely distinct classes of chemicals.

Does BPC-157 Increase Testosterone?

There is no substantial evidence that BPC-157 directly increases testosterone. However, its effects on vascular health, growth factors, and the nitric oxide system may in some cases indirectly impact testosterone levels or mimic the effects of androgens. For example, the NO system, which BPC-157 is shown to modulate, shares some overlap with testosterone in the sphere of endothelial function. Definitive studies are pending [22].

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Does BPC-157 Build Muscle?

BPC-157 is shown to contribute to muscle repair and growth in its upregulation of various growth factors, especially in the context of muscle injury [20].

Does BPC-157 Cause Weight Gain?

BPC-157 may affect changes in body weight in certain cases. This is dependent on the therapeutic context, administration protocols, and subject health.

BPC-157 Peptide Therapy | Review

To conclude, BPC-157 displays compelling therapeutic potential in a range of contexts and is uniquely adaptable to various routes of administration.

 From targeted treatment of neurological diseases to dramatic benefits throughout the GI tract and cardiovascular system, BPC-157 is a worthy topic of interest among leading clinicians. Its highly favorable safety profile to date adds promise to its prospective pharmacological development in the burgeoning field of peptide therapeutics. 

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Researchers can safely integrate BPC-157 into their work with the selection of delivery methods available from our recommended suppliers. 

Whether you opt for the winning capsules and injectables from Peptide Sciences or the excellent nasal spray formula from PureRawz , you can be sure that you are sourcing the best BPC-157 on the web.  

References


1.    US9850282B2 - stable pentadecapeptide salts, a process for preparation thereof, a use thereof in the manufacture of pharmaceutical preparations and a use thereof in therapy [Internet]. Google Patents. Google; [cited 2023Jan]. Available from: https://patents.google.com/patent/US9850282B2/en 

2.    Deek SA. BPC 157 as Potential Treatment for COVID-19. Med Hypotheses. 2021 Nov 9;158:110736. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2021.110736. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34798584; PMCID: PMC8575535.

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3.    Seiwerth, S., Milavic, M., Vukojevic, J., Gojkovic, S., Krezic, I., Vuletic, L. B., Pavlov, K. H., Petrovic, A., Sikiric, S., Vranes, H., Prtoric, A., Zizek, H., Durasin, T., Dobric, I., Staresinic, M., Strbe, S., Knezevic, M., Sola, M., Kokot, A., . . .  Sikiric, P. (2021). Stable Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and Wound Healing. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.627533

4.    Biomedicines [Internet]. Biomedicines | Special Issue : Frontiers in Pentadecapeptide BPC 157. [cited 2022Dec17]. Available from: https://www.mdpi.com/si/84378

5.    Bose M, Farias Quipildor G, Ehrlich ME, Salton SR. Intranasal Peptide Therapeutics: A Promising Avenue for Overcoming the Challenges of Traditional CNS Drug Development. Cells. 2022; 11(22):3629. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells11223629 

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6.    Gojkovic, S., Krezic, I., Vranes, H., Zizek, H., Drmic, D., Pavlov, K. H., Petrovic, A., Vuletic, L. B., Milavic, M., Sikiric, S., Stilinovic, I., Samara, M., Knezevic, M., Barisic, I., Sjekavica, I., Lovric, E., Skrtic, A., Seiwerth, S., & Sikiric, P. (2021). BPC 157 Therapy and the Permanent Occlusion of the Superior Sagittal Sinus in Rat: Vascular Recruitment. Biomedicines, 9(7). https://doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9070744 

7.    Sikiric P, Drmic D, Sever M, Klicek R, Blagaic AB, Tvrdeic A, Kralj T, Kovac KK, Vukojevic J, Siroglavic M, Gojkovic S, Krezic I, Pavlov KH, Rasic D, Mirkovic I, Kokot A, Skrtic A, Seiwerth S. Fistulas Healing. Stable Gastric Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Therapy. Curr Pharm Des. 2020;26(25):2991-3000. doi: 10.2174/1381612826666200424180139. PMID: 32329684.

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8.    CZ9904142A3 - novel BPC peptide salts exhibiting organo-protective activity, process of their preparation and their use in therapy [Internet]. Google Patents. Google; [cited 2023Feb]. Available from: https://patents.google.com/patent/CZ9904142A3/en

9.    Sikiric P, Seiwerth S, Rucman R, Turkovic B, Rokotov DS, Brcic L, Sever M, Klicek R, Radic B, Drmic D, Ilic S, Kolenc D, Vrcic H, Sebecic B. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157: novel therapy in gastrointestinal tract. Curr Pharm Des. 2011;17(16):1612-32. doi: 10.2174/138161211796196954. PMID: 21548867.

10.    Vukojevic J, Milavić M, Perović D, Ilić S, Čilić AZ, Đuran N, Štrbe S, Zoričić Z, Filipčić I, Brečić P, Seiverth S, Sikirić P. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and the central nervous system. Neural Regen Res. 2022 Mar;17(3):482-487. doi: 10.4103/1673-5374.320969. PMID: 34380875; PMCID: PMC8504390.

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11.    Sikiric P, Seiwerth S, Rucman R, Turkovic B, Rokotov DS, Brcic L, Sever M, Klicek R, Radic B, Drmic D, Ilic S, Kolenc D, Aralica G, Safic H, Suran J, Rak D, Dzidic S, Vrcic H, Sebecic B. Toxicity by NSAIDs. Counteraction by stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157. Curr Pharm Des. 2013;19(1):76-83. doi: 10.2174/13816128130111. PMID: 22950504.

12.    Brennan, R., Wells, J. G., & Van Hout, M. C. (2014). An unhealthy glow? A review of melanotan use and associated clinical outcomes. Performance Enhancement & Health, 3(2), 78–92. doi:10.1016/j.peh.2015.06.001

13.    Notice of opportunity for hearing (Nooh) manookian, Edward 8/5/16 [Internet]. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. FDA; 2016 [cited 2022Sep23]. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/regulatory-information/electronic-reading-room/notice-opportunity-hearing-nooh-manookian-edward-8516  

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14.    Richards, N., & Hudson, I. (2016). UK medicines regulation: Responding to current challenges. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 82(6), 1471-1476. https://doi.org/10.1111/bcp.13077 

15.    Shaer, D. A., Musaimi, O. A., & Albericio, F. (2022). 2021 FDA TIDES (Peptides and Oligonucleotides) Harvest. Pharmaceuticals, 15(2). https://doi.org/10.3390/ph15020222

16.    At 7.5% CAGR, global peptide synthesis market size & share to surpass US$ 845.68 million by 2028 | peptide synthesis industry [Internet]. Bloomberg.com. Bloomberg; 2023 [cited 2023Feb]. Available from: https://www.bloomberg.com/press-releases/2023-01-31/at-7-5-cagr-global-peptide-synthesis-market-size-share-to-surpass-us-845-68-million-by-2028-peptide-synthesis-industry?utm_source=website&utm_medium=share&utm_campaign=copy 

17.    Eglovitch JS. FDA guidance spells out acceptance criteria for synthetic peptide andas [Internet]. Regulatory Affairs Professionals Society (RAPS). [cited 2023Feb]. Available from: https://www.raps.org/news-and-articles/news-articles/2021/5/fda-guidance-spells-out-acceptance-criteria-for-sy 

18.    The Federal Register [Internet]. Federal Register :: Request Access. [cited 2023Feb]. Available from: https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2018/12/12/2018-26840/definition-of-the-term-biological-product 

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19.    The Federal Register [Internet]. Federal Register :: Request Access. [cited 2023Feb]. Available from: https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2021/05/14/2021-10179/evaluating-the-clinical-pharmacology-of-peptides-establishment-of-a-public-docket-request-for 

20.    Gwyer, D., Wragg, N.M. & Wilson, S.L. Gastric pentadecapeptide body protection compound BPC 157 and its role in accelerating musculoskeletal soft tissue healing. Cell Tissue Res 377, 153–159 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00441-019-03016-8 

21.    W. B. What is Bacteriostatic Water? [Internet]. Study.com | Take Online Courses. Earn College Credit. Research Schools, Degrees & Careers. 2022 [cited 2022Aug17]. Available from: https://study.com/academy/lesson/what-is-bacteriostatic-water-definition-uses.html  

22.    Hotta Y, Kataoka T, Kimura K. Testosterone Deficiency and Endothelial Dysfunction: Nitric Oxide, Asymmetric Dimethylarginine, and Endothelial Progenitor Cells. Sex Med Rev. 2019 Oct;7(4):661-668. doi: 10.1016/j.sxmr.2019.02.005. Epub 2019 Apr 12. PMID: 30987932.

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Disclaimer: The above is a sponsored post, the views expressed are those of the sponsor/author and do not represent the stand and views of Outlook Editorial.
 

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