Often it’s in mundane, everyday incidents that we stumble upon some innate and unspoken truths about ourselves. Photographer Parthiv Shah, who hails from Valod near Surat, remembers one such story involving his father Haku Shah. The eminent Indian painter and Gandhian was working at the Gujarat Vidyapeeth in the 1950s. He used to change two buses to get there, the cost of the entire journey being 25 paise. One day a co-passenger who’d been watching him couldn’t resist coming up with some good counsel. He told the young Haku Shah that if he got off the first bus a stop earlier, and then changed into the next bus, tickets would be five paise cheaper. “Thrift and prudence are qualities we Gujaratis possess in ample measure,” smiles Parthiv.
We were discussing what it means for him to be a Gujarati, after all, an individual could belong to a community yet be an outsider. Also, any community could be as similar to another as it could be different. “It’s not as though we are born with horns on our heads,” says national award-winning filmmaker Hansal Mehta, who considers himself a freak —a meat-eating, agnostic Gujarati. But yes, suddenly everyone seems curious about his community (for many, till now the only point of reference was the comedy Taarak Mehta ka Oolta Chashmah on SAB TV). As with any grouping, Gujaratis have their share of cliched images: huge groups travelling together on holidays and greeting each other with a loud ‘Kem chho’ or ‘Jai Shri Krishna’; their garbas and dandiyas and the seedha pallu sari that TV’s Gujarati heroines wear even while going to bed; the typical accent that Bollywood writers attempt to make us go ROFL, the “snakes in the hole jokes” and foodstuff that, as Kareena Kapoor remonstrates in 3 Idiots, sound like weapons of mass destruction: fafda, khakra, thepla, dhokla, handvo. Stereotypes often come with a grain of truth but there are more layers under the surface, many complexities lying beneath the easy definitions. What escapes an outsider, in his limited perception of the Gujaratis, are the three central Ds: diversity and dynamism of culture and an intriguing, underlying dichotomy.
But some intrinsic traits in the middle class just can’t just be brushed away. The spirit of enterprise, entrepreneurship and the drive to make money is intense. “It’s called Baniya buddhi (mercantile mindset). We have seen it since childhood so perhaps it is ingrained in us,” says Saloni Shah, 24, who is a chartered accountant. Gujarat scholar Amrita Shah says that “it’s all about making something from nothing”. It’s no surprise then to find even blue-collar workers playing the stockmarket. According to filmmaker-editor Sanjiv Shah, who made the acclaimed Gujarati film, Hun Hunshi Hunshilal, monetary value is attached to every endeavour. “It all boils down to how much will you make. Money has a peculiar God-like status,” he says. Author and journalist Sheela Bhatt says Gujaratis are least hypocritical about attaching value to money. “Money has a place everywhere. But in Delhi, for instance, I find it more implicit, while in Gujarat it’s explicit. There is a monetisation of lingo, emotions, relations,” she says.
In fact, being money-minded is not looked down upon by Gujaratis, it’s something to be proud of. Columnist, author and brand consultant Santosh Desai refers to it as being “comfortable with the idea of consumption, about being robust, squeezing everything out of life...at the risk of overstating, I would call them Punjabis without the aggression and muscle”. They are also very organised. Even a vegetable vendor would display the okra in a certain pattern, the brinjal in another. A dinner get-together with friends over ice-cream-soda is also planned to the T, and money could wind its way here too. There is this anecdote of a group of Ahmedabad friends who used to meet regularly for ice-cream after dinner who decided to pool in Rs 2,000 each in a kitty and invested it in shares. The money it fetched from the stockmarket started paying for their get-togethers, and with time, got them membership to the city’s tony Karnavati and Rajpath clubs.
Of course, there are a few exceptions. Like Mohak Jhaveri, 24, IIM graduate and now a consultant at an HR firm. “In my extended family, only 2-3 people are out there doing something different. Otherwise, we are a family of diamond traders. But it was the last thing on my mind,” he says. “Working for others is not favourably regarded. When I got into IIM, nobody in my extended family knew or cared about it,” says Santosh. Columnist Aakar Patel remembers how when he was growing up there were only four good English schools in Surat for a population of over three million. Surat’s first Crosswords bookstore opened only recently; its Gujarati section has more translations of Bangla literature than original indigenous writing. Aakar himself did not complete high school, has a diploma in textile technology and says that his family doesn’t have a single graduate. In this process, the lack of English skills has emerged as an Achilles heel since education has mostly been imparted in the Gujarati medium. “They always believed that English was not needed to progress to modernity,” says Aakar. Which could be one reason why the IT revolution didn’t go deep into Gujarat—no one could speak proper English. “In a way, the Gujaratis have been like the Chinese, they are waking up to English only now,” says Parthiv. In the last 10 years things have been changing.
What about art and culture then? “Art has no value, literature has withered away, classical music never took roots,” says Sanjiv. Gujarati theatre has been flourishing but rarely do you see people taking to classical music and dance in the way they do in the south. “There’s a market for entertainment but very little for classical, literary and folk traditions,” says Amrita. Everything boils down to the market. “Gujarati theatre is inherently mediocre but it’s the only one in the country that makes money, providing a livelihood to hundreds,” says Hansal. Not just theatre, the garba has also gone the disco way and got commercialised. There are occasional Sufi music festivals, ghazal evenings etc but the Page 3 circuit remains hemmed in because of prohibition.
In recent decades, there has been a growth in new religious sects like the Swaminarayan, and the cult of the satsangi gurus and pravachankaris like Murari Bapu and Rameshbhai Oza whose sessions attract crowds in lakhs. “But it’s a practical, utilitarian, worldly religion. It is religious identity in a lived sense than a practice of esoteric concepts. It’s about consuming religion than immersing oneself in it,” says Santosh. No wonder the highest per capita viewing of both stockmarket channel cnbc and religious TV Aastha happens to be in Gujarat, a perfect combination of the material and the spiritual. This perhaps is the essential contradiction amongst the Gujaratis at large. They travel and explore the world, yet carry their food with them. As a Raj Travels ad goes, it’s about “Rome maan ras, ani Paris maan paatra (Aam ras in Rome and paatra in Paris)”. They may have settled outside Gujarat, in India and abroad, but retain their identity and create their own ghettos and islands. “It was a shocker for me to see many students return to Gujarat because they didn’t find proper food in their institutes abroad,” says educational consultant Manisha Modha-Patel.
Sheela says the Gujarat model of development has little to do with government and more to do with people initiatives. Influenced by Jainism, many corporate houses are known to give away a part of their wealth to social causes—from building hospitals and schools, funding fellowships to gaushalas. The Sarabhais and Mangaldases have always supported art/cultural institutes and provided infrastructure for creative pursuits to grow.
They may be conservative but are at the same time progressive and modern. “In Ahmedabad and Surat, it’s almost a ritual to eat out on the weekend so that the women don’t have to cook,” says Sanjiv. There is moral uptightness yet a simultaneous sexual liberation. The first ‘contract marriage’, lasting for three months, is reported to have happened in Gujarat. It’s Gujaratis who have the radical practice of a maitri karaar, almost a legalisation of live-in relationships. “While there would be a strong conservatism in terms of marriage and social interaction, at another level you have girls dancing through the night in Navaratri without parents necessarily frowning upon it,” says rights lawyer Mihir Desai.
Manavendrasingh Gohil, Rajpipala royalty and a gay activist, says, “Even before the Delhi High Court decriminalised homosexuality, our MP was talking to us about it. It would have been one of the first states to initiate this. Even before the SC’s transgender order came, we had received similar notification from the state ministry,” says. So the narrative about Gujaratis must reflect these nuances that live between the broad brushstrokes. As Manisha Modha-Patel points out: “There is only one thing common to all the Gujaratis right now...which is that after Modi’s win they are all grinning from ear to ear.” Maybe not quite. Let’s wait for Aakar Patel’s next column to reach a consensus on that.
By Namrata Joshi and Prachi Pinglay-Plumber
Apropos Show Us the Rokda, the hunt for rokda should produce the most ‘secular’ beings—the only colour to matter being the colour of the rokda.
The moderns are following in the ancients’ footsteps (Show Us the Rokda, June 2). Look at Harshad Mehta and Jignesh Shah; betting in cricket to black money; Ambanis to Adanis—Gujaratis are way more greedy than people from other states.
Thank you to all those who have taken the trouble to read the article and share their thoughts. Out of the arguments made here, there are two that perhaps need answering. So here they go.
1. The first part of the article compares outcomes (relative percentages of population of the religions concerned) irrespective of the process that led to those outcomes - whether immigration, relatively faster population growth or conversions. This was for two reasons. One, to put the figure of 2.3 per cent in "numerical perspective", as the article itself explained. The second reason was that outcomes are ultimately what the crux of debate is about. The rest of the article in any case dealt with process - or conversions in this case, from both a contemporary and historical perspective.
2. Some commenters have tried to cast doubts on the reliability of Census 2001. Those who do this should bear in mind that Census 2001 was conducted by a BJP government. Considering the extreme importance that BJP gives to this issue, it would be reasonable to expect that IF it had perceived a problem with the methodology that was distorting the numbers, it would have fixed it. As the article mentioned, BJP or BJP-supported governments have been in power for 10 of the last 40 years, or about a quarter of the time, and the only reasonable conclusion one can arrive at is that any misreporting of numbers, real or perceived, would be marginal and hence, not of importance.
To all other arguments made, my answer is the following: Please read the article again, with particular focus on the quotations of Vivekananda and Monier Williams, and the history of the missionary efforts in Bengal and their outcome.
look at harshad mehta to jignesh shah,cricket betting to black money,ambanis to adanis,gujrathis far ahead of other indian states greed
There are many myths that RSS and Modi trying to propagate.One of them is that Gujaratis are vegetarians!Modi talks about whenever he is asked about cow slaughter forgetting that Vedas have allowed to cow slaughter and eating them.His deficiency in knowledge as N Ram put it need not be spread around since he is the PM now.
Is this what passes for content in Outlook these days? If so, could Outlook do us, readers, the favour of using more absorbent paper to print this issue on? A couple of alternative uses of your esteemed magazine come to mind.
As found in history, primarily less progressive and poor intectual communities leads to great enterprenuers. Among the europes britishes were the least cultured, and most literally backward race till 15th century, who went out to rule the business worlds where as more cultured, sophisicated French and Italian left behind. Similar evidences found in cases of Rajasthani and Gujarati people. Being hailed from two of the worst infertile and feudal conflicting states of India (least influenced by modern western civilization), the people from Rajashtan and Gujarat practically had no other choice apart from blue color business post independence.Gradually they speaded though out India to become the leaders in Family oriented business. However in modern world wealth is not the capital -- it is knowledge & innovativeness -- which are the capitals in less tangible white color enterprises like ITs. I doubt how much these two community can progress in that fields.
The lead picture should be captioned "teenage girls"; not just "teenagers".
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