Some nine centuries after the great seat of Buddhist learning was felled by the march of history, Parliament passed the Nalanda University Act in August 2010. Controversies continue to swirl around this ancient university being brought to life by an act of faith and law, mentored by a high-powered group of worthies led by Nobel laureate Amartya Sen. Questions continue to be asked about this modern-day liberal university in the making. Will Nalanda University take shape in New Delhi or in Nalanda, near Patna? Will its vice-chancellor be permanent? But most importantly, can Bihar, not exactly known for the quality of higher education it imparts, play host to an international university which, in its heyday (possibly in the Gupta dynasty era from the 6th century BC to the 12th century AD) was the repository of world knowledge?
The search for answers confuses matters even further. A call to the Union human resources and development ministry is almost invariably deflected to the Union ministry of external affairs, which is the nodal ministry for this international university. Just when you think Nalanda is the MEA’s baby, wait, there are more claimants, making it difficult to establish who’s doing what. From the Nalanda Mentor Group—which has on its rolls 16 ASEAN countries, including China, Japan, Australia, Korea and Thailand—to the MEA, Planning Commission, the state of Bihar—all driven by the single vision of seeing the university resurrected.
It has not been smooth thus far. To sort out some of the issues confronting the university, a couple of years after it was enacted, the Planning Commission will be meeting on June 25 to chalk out a roadmap. But resurrection comes with its attendant problems.
Is the VC’s CV good enough? Gopa Sabharwal has become VC on the counsel of the Prof Sen headed mentor group
Strictly speaking, it should be the HRD ministry that should be overseeing the implementation of this ambitious university. The MEA should step in only if there is an inter-governmental agreement. Yet, it is the latter which calls the shots. Nalanda was conceptualised as an international university involving the 16 ASEAN countries. China, it is learnt, has also initiated a similar university in Nepal. Will there be two international Buddhist universities fighting for honours—and funding? As of now, no one can tell.
The state government, it is learnt, is open to funds from private donors, as well as the governments of the East Asia region, which have initiated the project in the first place. Says N.K. Singh, member of the committee set up by the Planning Commission, “People are in a tearing hurry to see this university function. But I would like to quote Prof Amartya Sen that it has been more than 800 years since the Nalanda university was ground to dust, we need to give ourselves some time.”
As for the controversy surrounding the appointment of the vice-chancellor, which many say was an arbitrary decision, Singh says the matter is “settled”. Gopa Sabharwal, professor of sociology from Delhi University whose name was approved by the high-profile mentor group headed by Prof Sen, will draw a monthly salary of Rs 5 lakh, perhaps making her the highest-paid academician in the country. While her suitability for the post is a matter of heated debate, Singh says it is a non-issue now.
Yet, academicians flag concerns. Says Dr Apoorvaanand of Delhi University, “When you intend to resurrect something, in this case, a university, it becomes a caricature of its former self.” The project has been flawed from the very beginning, he maintains. Apoorvaanand wonders whether Nalanda has the infrastructure to host an international university. Answers to that will have to wait, for they are hard to come by. For its part, the Bihar government is pushing for a dedicated airport, highways, as well as development of agriculture.
While a confident Singh unveils his vision for the university, it might be noted that, only a month ago, vice-chancellor Gopa Sabharwal, citing lack of infrastructure, shifted to New Delhi—lock, stock and office. Her rationale: New Delhi would give a prominent place to the university. Singh, however, denies this and says that the vice-chancellor has given an assurance that she will work from Nalanda. “There is absolutely no doubt in our mind that the university will be based in Nalanda.”
The issue, though, appears far from resolved. While the MEA, it is learnt, was in favour of having an administrative office in the national capital, making liaising easy, the Bihar state government wants the university back where it belongs—in the state. While there appears to be a communication gap between the Centre and the state, the subject of Sabharwal’s credentials continues to be fodder for gossip.
“How can an international university have a vice-chancellor who does not have the requisite qualifications to chair the university?” ask some academicians. While Sabharwal’s colleagues vouch for her academic achievements, the fact that she has nothing to do with Buddhist studies is not lost on many. How she was chosen over others, too, remains mired in mystery. Is she VC-elect or VC-designate? Of course, the mouth-watering pay package of Rs 5 lakh per month (tax exempt) she will get has also become the subject of envy.
What about courses and infrastructure, the backbone of any university in the making? The campus in Nalanda just has a wall to show for all the effort so far. The first two faculties to kick off the academic exercise in this university will be environmental studies and historical studies, to be followed by others such as information technology and international relations. It is perhaps a sign of the changes since the original Nalanda that the courses being introduced reflect contemporary needs fuelled by a global market.
“A university stands for humanism, for tolerance, for reason, for the adventure of ideas and for the search of truth,” said Jawaharlal Nehru. “It stands for the onward march of the human race towards even higher objectives. If the university discharges its duties adequately, then it is well with the people and the nation.” This speech was recently reiterated by CPI(M) leader Sitaram Yechury in a debate on the university in Parliament. Will the university fulfil the visions of the first prime minister, the scholars who studied in the ancient university of Nalanda and the parliamentarians who passed the act? Well, frankly, we don’t know. At this moment, in the best of traditions, a debate rages on.
It’s quite galling how the vice-chancellor for the Nalanda university project has been selected without following a transparent procedure (Nalanda: An Avatar in Distress). And how should she think it fit to function out of Delhi?
Girish Mishra, Delhi
It does matter where a university is set up. Backward places need universities to boost growth. Professors who can’t stand the hardship of being in such places should make way for those who are willing.
Ashutosh, on e-mail
Thank you to all those who have taken the trouble to read the article and share their thoughts. Out of the arguments made here, there are two that perhaps need answering. So here they go.
1. The first part of the article compares outcomes (relative percentages of population of the religions concerned) irrespective of the process that led to those outcomes - whether immigration, relatively faster population growth or conversions. This was for two reasons. One, to put the figure of 2.3 per cent in "numerical perspective", as the article itself explained. The second reason was that outcomes are ultimately what the crux of debate is about. The rest of the article in any case dealt with process - or conversions in this case, from both a contemporary and historical perspective.
2. Some commenters have tried to cast doubts on the reliability of Census 2001. Those who do this should bear in mind that Census 2001 was conducted by a BJP government. Considering the extreme importance that BJP gives to this issue, it would be reasonable to expect that IF it had perceived a problem with the methodology that was distorting the numbers, it would have fixed it. As the article mentioned, BJP or BJP-supported governments have been in power for 10 of the last 40 years, or about a quarter of the time, and the only reasonable conclusion one can arrive at is that any misreporting of numbers, real or perceived, would be marginal and hence, not of importance.
To all other arguments made, my answer is the following: Please read the article again, with particular focus on the quotations of Vivekananda and Monier Williams, and the history of the missionary efforts in Bengal and their outcome.
>> calling you Paki and jihadi is only stating facts!
Calling you a liar and a smear artist is a fact. Since you have neither data nor logic, all you can do is call me names! Shame on you!
>>Can you explain once more how I am wrong in the specific instances I mentioned?
You are wrong because Sangeetha did something not palatable to Paki stooges.
>>When you have no points left, call me a Paki or a jihadi!
You don't deserve any points just abuses. Besides, calling you Paki and jihadi is only stating facts!
Why do article writers try to act clever by inserting such innocent sounding phrases like "the march of history" and let loose the sort of arguments we are having now. Why not simply mention as a bare fact that Nalanda was destroyed by Bakhtiyar Khilji? People are going to find it anyways and such clever-by-half tactics does no one any favors. A subtle insinuation is that our populace is so stupid that it will go berserk once this fact is known. No wonder our scholarship is down in dumps.
>> That is true now. There are hardly any Buddhists left.
Now I understand why Kashmiri Muslims claim that the pandits are like their brothers. They have killed/driven out almost everyone.
We at Outlookindia.com welcome feedback and your comments, including scathing criticism
1. Scathing, passionate, even angry critiques are welcome, but please do not indulge in abuse and invective. Our Primary concern is to keep the debate civil. We urge our users to try and express their disagreements without being disagreeable. Personal attacks are not welcome. No ad hominem please.
2. Please do not post the same message again and again in the same or different threads
3. Please keep your responses confined to the subject matter of the article you are responding to. Please note that our comments section is not a general free-for-all but for feedback to articles/blogs posted on the site
4. Our endeavour is to keep these forums unmoderated and unexpurgated. But if any of the above three conditions are violated, we reserve the right to delete any comment that we deem objectionable and also to withdraw posting privileges from the abuser. Please also note that hate-speech is punishable by law and in extreme circumstances, we may be forced to take legal action by tracing the IP addresses of the poster.
5. If someone is being abusive or personal, or generally being a troll or a flame-baiter, please do not descend to their level. The best response to such posters is to ignore them and send us a message at Mail AT outlookindia DOT com with the subject header COMPLAINT
6. Please do not copy and paste copyrighted material. If you do think that an article elsewhere has relevance to the point you wish to make, please only quote what is considered fair-use and provide a link to the article under question.
7. There is no particular outlookindia.com line on any subject. The views expressed in our opinion section are those of the author concerned and not that of all of outlookindia.com or all its authors.
8. Please also note that you are solely responsible for the comments posted by you on the site. The comments could be deleted or edited entirely at our discretion if we find them objectionable. However, the mere fact of their existence on our site does not mean that we necessarily approve of their contents. In short, the onus of responsibility for the comments remains solely with the authors thereof. Outlookindia.com or any of its group publications, may, however, retains the right to publish any of these comments, with or without editing, in any medium whatsoever. It is therefore in your own interest to be careful before posting.
9.Outlookindia.com is not responsible in any manner whatsoever for how any search engine -- such as Google, Bing etc -- caches or displays these comments. Please note that you are solely responsible for posting these comments and it is a privilege being granted to our registered users which can be withdrawn in case of abuse. To reiterate:
a. Comments once posted can only be deleted at the discretion of outlookindia.com
b. The comments reflect the views of the authors and not of outlookindia.com
c. outlookindia.com is not responsible in any manner whatsoever for the way search engines cache or display these comments
d. Please therefore take due caution before you post any comments as your words could potentially be used against you
10. We have an online thread for our comments policy:
You are welcome to post your suggestions here or in case you have a specific issue, to directly email us at Mail AT outlookindia DOT com with the subject header COMPLAINT