And if there’s an icon who has emerged as a totemic figure, it is Ravana, a figure the Gonds claim to have worshipped from ancient times. Seeking to steer clear of modern, proselytising Hindutva and Christianity, two religions that have made inroads into their community, the Gonds have found in Ramayana’s ‘demon king’ their patron saint. Temples to Ravana are now being billed as centres of pilgrimage for Gonds. Some of them even call themselves ‘Ravanvanshis’ and venerate their patriarch despite opposition from right-wing Hindu organisations. It is their foundry where they hope to forge a religious identity too, just as neat and definite as their linguistic one.
Gondi is a language spoken by over 2.7 million (2001 census figures, liable to have gone up), mostly in Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. But its proud speakers will tell you their number is three or four times that, and not without smarting, because Sanskrit, with just around 15,000 ‘speakers’, has a privileged status in the Eighth Schedule, but not theirs. More so when they tell you ‘tribal’, as a description, conveys only part of the Gondi story, a language they claim with increasing resolve is a ‘classical’ one in the same league as Sanskrit. Research has gone in to posit Gondi as the “mother of Dravidian languages” and to suggest the Harappan script, whose illegibility has long stumped scholars, is actually decipherable using a Gondi one.
Last month, 60 Gondi speakers gathered at a workshop in New Delhi to hammer out a lingua franca—a Gondi esperanto, so to speak—the first such attempt. There were representatives from Bastar, deep within Maoist territory, just as those from the urban sprawl of Bhopal. It was a chaotic, but momentous start. Overseeing this landmark initiative was Dr S.I. Koreti, who specialises in the history of Gonds at Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University. “This move will unite a people divided so far and made weaker by the lack of cooperation,” he says. The desired outcome of a collective consensus is a long way off. A ‘standard’ form of Gondi will also require its speakers to agree to using one of the many scripts currently in use to write the language.
Given its potential, the launch drew political interest. Union tribal affairs minister Jual Oram pledged his support for the inclusion of a standard Gondi into the Eighth Schedule. Delhi, earlier this month, also saw a convention that brought Gond Lok Sabha MPs face-to-face with Gonds from across India.
Nameproud The village Ravana in Vidisha district
Present in Delhi for the Gondi workshop was Manmohan Shah Batti, a member of the Gondwana Ganatantra Party and a former MLA in Madhya Pradesh. He was behind the installation of a Ravana statue in a temple in Chhindwara district in 2008. “Many had stopped worshipping him out of fear as Hindu influences weakened tribal traditions. Our gods had become demons,” he says. With the Ravana temple, Batti hopes to create a new pilgrimage centre. “Hindus have Varanasi, Christians have the Vatican and Muslims Mecca. We too should have ours as it will help build an identity,” he adds. A defiant Batti hasn’t been deterred by threats, including those to “burn him publicly along with Ravana’s effigy”.
Ravana, along with his wife Mandodari and son Meghnad, is venerated in different forms. The most common is through three totems that can be found in Gond villages across central India. But there are temples dedicated to them too, including one in Madhya Pradesh’s Vidisha district, with an idol of a reclining Ravana. Legend has it that a local warrior would often travel to Lanka to hone his combat skills by sparring with Ravana. To save him the trouble, Ravana asked him to set up a temple with his idol. Today, locals flock there to mark auspicious starts.
It is hoped that the move to forge a common Gondi will also be a harbinger of prosperity—many Gonds hope it will lead to access to education in their language. Koreti’s colleague at the workshop, K.M. Metry from the Department of Tribal Studies at Kannada University in Hampi, adds, “It will also prompt greater research to establish how Gondi is the root of Dravidian languages”. As he brings up words that are similar in Kannada and Gondi, including ‘mara/marra’ for tree or ‘anchey’ for basket, the zeal shows through.
This effort has been supported by CGNet, a popular mobile radio news service. There’s a strategic reason. Shubhranshu Choudhary, who manages CGNet, wants to set up a pan-Gondi shortwave station. Gonds may be spread across six different states but they face similar challenges, whether it is around tendu cultivation or land-grabbing. “A Gond from Abujhmad therefore should be of help to another,” he says. “The Gond population is huge but such is their state that they struggle to find sincere leaders and elect them.”
While much of the media merely skims over tribal issues, Choudhary hopes the radio station, by taking up their cause, can lead them to question those in power, including the Maoists. “Democracy bettered by technology is a much better option than illusions of Communism or Maoism. We need to see this as a strategic investment,” he says. “We need a dialogue between the marginalised class of adivasis and the right people in positions of power.” The beginning of this campaign by the Gonds to occupy mainstream space is therefore historic. As Pramod Potai, a social worker from Chhattisgarh’s Narayanpur district, says, “Our attempt to standardise Gondi and push it in the Eighth Schedule is like Gandhi’s campaign to win independence.”
(The writer is a media fellow at the National Foundation of India, where he is exploring links between linguistic discrimination and Maoist conflict.)
Apropos of Asuras? No, Just Indians, except for Kali, the goddess of time who is portrayed as a dark young woman (for the reason time is always seen in the present, the past and future being dark), other gods are usually shown in white except Agni the fire god (red). The idols tend to be black granite in the south, this has nothing to do with colour defined in shlokas. And Ravana does not represent Gonds, he only represents himself.
P. Shakkottai, Long Beach, US
The writer is saying nothing new. It’s the Congress who propagated this fake secularism to fool Muslims and get their votes, it’s the Congress who divided Indians among castes and religions.
Renu Ramchandani, Adipur
Thank you to all those who have taken the trouble to read the article and share their thoughts. Out of the arguments made here, there are two that perhaps need answering. So here they go.
1. The first part of the article compares outcomes (relative percentages of population of the religions concerned) irrespective of the process that led to those outcomes - whether immigration, relatively faster population growth or conversions. This was for two reasons. One, to put the figure of 2.3 per cent in "numerical perspective", as the article itself explained. The second reason was that outcomes are ultimately what the crux of debate is about. The rest of the article in any case dealt with process - or conversions in this case, from both a contemporary and historical perspective.
2. Some commenters have tried to cast doubts on the reliability of Census 2001. Those who do this should bear in mind that Census 2001 was conducted by a BJP government. Considering the extreme importance that BJP gives to this issue, it would be reasonable to expect that IF it had perceived a problem with the methodology that was distorting the numbers, it would have fixed it. As the article mentioned, BJP or BJP-supported governments have been in power for 10 of the last 40 years, or about a quarter of the time, and the only reasonable conclusion one can arrive at is that any misreporting of numbers, real or perceived, would be marginal and hence, not of importance.
To all other arguments made, my answer is the following: Please read the article again, with particular focus on the quotations of Vivekananda and Monier Williams, and the history of the missionary efforts in Bengal and their outcome.
Except Kali, the goddess of time who is portrayed as a dark young woman( for the reason time is always seen in the present , the past and future being dark) other gods are usually shown white except Agni the fire god shown red. The idols tend to be black granite in the south. This has nothing to do with color defined in Shlokas.
Ravana is hate worthy because being a Brahmin and stealing Sita is extraordinarily offensive. To have someone worship him is also offensive. How will it look if Islamic terrorists were worshipped for being strict followers of Allah and kidnapped women in Africa and bragged about it?Ravana does not represent Gonds. He represents himself.
Agnipariksha is barbaric and Rama is to be blamed for this.
This is some kind of artificial history being created. Initially Britishers propagated Aryan theory and now some people are trying to convert it into reality.
I do not know where to start. First thing is you need primer both in Mythology as well as history of Hindustan. For starter. Shiva is oldest of the Gods and has origins in Pre-vedic culture and has no mention in Vedas. Vishnu's elevation as one of the primary God of hindus is a later event, as during initial days Vishnu was minor God in Rigveda, far smaller in stature to Indra who was the chief Gods of Vedic people.
Also for your assesrtion of very few darker Gods, you should take some time out and go for tirath in India, 90% of the temples have their chief deity in dark color. you can go to see neelamadhav in Puri/ or Lord badri in badrinath or meenakshi temple etc. Lord Ram, Lord, Krishan, Lord Shiva. have pan india presence and probably are have largest number of temples. These three Gods are always depicted as dark. As for Vishnu most of his avatars are Dark gods.
Why hate Ravan so much beside kidnapping Sita he cannot be accused of any other wrong doing? As for the "civilized" behaviour, How much "civilized" was it on behalf of Lord Ram to abondon a pregnant Sita after waging a war for her in which large number of people died on both sides and making her go through Agnipariksha. The act was so "un-civilized" that eventually Sita preferred a refuge in mother earth than to go back to Lord.
The "Proper" Ramayans also tells us that Ravan had 10 heads, had a flying machine, Jaytayau had wings and could fly, stones could flot in water and Lord Hanuman was a non-human entity, a Vanar. None of which i have ever witnessed in my life and am positive that you may also have not witnessed that. Neither any amount of logical inference can point to existence of such things/phenomenon. I accept it on basis of faith, a suspended belief that someday all of this may turn out to be correct. Please note in Hindustan there are hundreds of "Proper" Ramayans, why only stick to one narrative. There is a difference between reading text and understanding the text. I think i can demarcate between the original story and addtions made to the story to further vested interest.
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