U.R. Ananthamurthy’s nomination for this year’s Man Booker International prize may have delighted his admirers throughout India but it has stirred an old debate among a small but vocal section of Kannada readers: is Ananthamurthy really the best novelist in the language? For them, his fame is not the result of his great novels—Samskara, Bharatipura, Avasthe—but a left-wing conspiracy to elevate him over the novelist who is not only the best in Kannada, but perhaps in any Indian language: S.L. Bhyrappa.
And who is Santeshivara Lingannaiah Bhyrappa? Winner of the Sahitya Akademi award, he’s the author of 21 widely read and sometimes very controversial Kannada novels. These achievements are overshadowed, however, by a single fact: S.L. Bhyrappa is pro-Hindutva. His unvarnished political opinions—he opposes religious conversion and cow slaughter, and thinks that Tipu Sultan is a religious fanatic rather than a national hero—embarrass even his own admirers. It would be convenient to celebrate only Ananthamurthy, who is staunchly secular, and forget that the odious Mr Bhyrappa exists at all. The problem is that his writing can be so infuriatingly good.
The 81-year old Bhyrappa, a resident of Mysore, came to prominence with his 1965 novel Vamsha Vruksha (The Dynastic Tree), the tale of the intertwined lives of two families in pre-independence Mysore. One of the central characters, Katyayini, a young student at Mysore university, falls in love with her charistmatic teacher. The attraction is natural enough, yet marriage is forbidden to Katyayini: she is a widow. It is a recurring Bhyrappa theme. Instinctual drives collide against dharma, and the results are often tragic. Though the prose rarely approaches the verbal artistry of a work like Samskara, Bhyrappa’s skill in exploring the inner lives of his characters (especially the women), his minute attentiveness to detail, and sensitive use of landscape and setting (Mysore’s hills and lakes play a central role in the story), make Vamsha Vruksha a deeply moving novel.
From the publication of Vamsha Vruksha, which came out just before Samskara, Bhyrappa has been accused of being the anti-Ananthamurthy: a conservative whose goal is the defence of upper-caste Hindu society. This is a crude charge. Widely read in English, Kannada and Sanskrit, and educated in Indian and western philosophy, Bhyrappa can quote authors ranging from William James to V.S. Naipaul. The sight of Hindus converting to other religions, or of cows being slaughtered, seems to freeze all his erudition, and in his essays he can sound like the reactionary that his critics say he is. His novels are much more ambiguous. In Jalapaata (The Waterfall, 1967), a painter moves from Mysore to Bombay to find that the city is dehumanising—its antipathy to Hindu values is summed up in a vast abattoir, filled with cows, in the suburb of Bandra. Deciding that he cannot paint in such a soulless place, he moves with his family to a village in Karnataka—only to find that the villagers are far more rapacious than anyone he has met in the city. Chastened, he returns to Bombay. The novel ends with the hero revisiting the abattoir in Bandra: he understands that only by bearing witness to modernity’s horror, and not by fleeing from it, can he become an artist.
Through the 1960s and 1970s, while he lived in Gujarat, New Delhi and Mysore, Bhyrappa wrote prolifically, shifting at will from the contemporary to the historical, and urban to rural settings. Foul-mouthed, stupid, money-minded, yet overflowing with vitality, Bhyrappa’s villagers are among his finest creations. Griha-Bhanga (House Destroyed, 1970), a snapshot of village life that is in equal parts intimate and satirical, ends when the hero, his mouth full of paan, watches his son leaving the village, probably for all time. Does he say something, does he try to call his son back? But he knows he has no more paan left; so, rather than spit, he simply watches his son go past with a full mouth. The boy can’t believe his father isn’t saying a word of goodbye, and keeps turning around. Bleak and comic, the image sums up an entire way of life.
Post Parva, the books kept coming, with mixed results. Tantu (1993), an 888-page chronicle of the rotting of India after independence, starts when a journalist who is studying Nani Palkhivala’s report on Centre-state relations is informed that the Saraswati statue from the temple in his village has been stolen. The overlapping of personal, religious and political motifs continues throughout the length of this uneven, but often very powerful, book. Perhaps the most original of the later works is Saakshi (1986). The novel opens in the after-life, where Parameshwarayya, a man who committed suicide after giving false testimony in a court of law, is given a second chance to tell the truth—in the court of Yama deva. What follows is a febrile and unsettling examination of how human beings lie to one another. In 2002, the novel Mandra, whose theme is classical Indian music, duly won a national award, and it appeared that the career of S.L. Bhyrappa was headed to a quiet, honourable finish.
Then came Aavarana. For decades, Bhyrappa had said that an artist ought not to preach. In 2007, he broke his own rule. Aavarana (The Concealing), though technically his 20th novel, is a polemic—a list of all the sins that Muslims have allegedly wreaked on Hindus and their culture for generations. Ananthamurthy criticised the novel, and Bhyrappa entered into a rancorous public debate with him (the two men have a long history of attacking each other). A bestseller in Karnataka, Aavarana earned the aging Bhyrappa a cult following of young, rabidly right-wing readers. He seems to enjoy his new role as spokesperson for Hindutva causes, and recently urged the government to scrap its plan to name a university after Tipu Sultan. The result is that the term Aavarana now describes what has happened to S.L. Bhyrappa himself: swallowed by his weakest novel, passed over for the Jnanpith (the traditional crown for the bhasha writer), and in danger of having a fanbase composed entirely of bigots.
Ananthamurthy and Bhyrappa are the opposite poles of the modern Kannada novel. If one is its Flaubert—the author of a compact, exquisite body of work, left-liberal in its sympathies—the other is its Balzac—prolific, unruly, and suspect in his politics. Ananthamurthy may be the better writer, but Bhyrappa inspires more affection in those who speak Kannada. More than 20 years ago, as a student in Sydney, Australia, I knew one of that city’s richest doctors, a man from coastal Karnataka. When he compared the state of Australia with that of India, the doctor felt depressed; at such moments he flicked through an old copy of Parva that he had brought with him to Sydney. Seeing how Bhyrappa had modernised the Mahabharata gave him hope that India too could become a prosperous country—without losing its cultural identity. For nearly five decades, S.L. Bhyrappa’s richly imagined and deeply felt novels have helped his readers tide over difficult moments in their lives. It is time for them to return the favour and rescue this great Indian writer’s legacy from the biggest threat it faces: Bhyrappa himself.
(Aravind Adiga won the Booker prize for The White Tiger)
Apropos Aravind Adiga’s piece A Storyteller in Search of an Ending (Mar 11), I read Vamsha Vruksha at the age of 19, exactly 40 years back. I was so moved by the novel that I made a trip to Mysore. Thereafter, I read a couple of Bhyrappa’s novels and enjoyed them all. I have also read Ananthamurthy’s Samskara. I’m too insignificant an entity to comment on who is better. But certainly, both have excellent narrative skills, and the power to hold you enthralled.
Raghavendra Kaveri, Bangalore
I had never heard of S.L. Bhyrappa, but after reading Adiga’s piece, I hope to read him in the future.
Abhishek Sharman, Delhi
Fine article. But good as Bhyrappa and Ananthamurthy are, they don’t match up to yesteryear greats like A.N. Murthy and D.V. Gundappa.
P. Harshavardhana, Laurel, US
For both U.R. Ananthamurthy and Girish Karnad, the Kannada language is only a tool to further their ends in the literary world. They are ashamed of any Kannada movement, they don’t like other Kannada writers, why should they talk of Bhyrappa?
S.S. Nagaraj, Bangalore
Karnad and URA are a mutual back-scratching duo. URA, in fact, has notched up more positions/awards than his whole oeuvre combined.
K. Suresh, Bangalore
For those who know little about the Kannada language, Adiga’s essay was a fascinating introduction into a regional literature.
Gaurab Banerjee, Calcutta
Adiga isn’t accomplished or learned enough to comment on Bhyrappa. And it shows.
D. Anjaneyulu, Chennai
Thank you to all those who have taken the trouble to read the article and share their thoughts. Out of the arguments made here, there are two that perhaps need answering. So here they go.
1. The first part of the article compares outcomes (relative percentages of population of the religions concerned) irrespective of the process that led to those outcomes - whether immigration, relatively faster population growth or conversions. This was for two reasons. One, to put the figure of 2.3 per cent in "numerical perspective", as the article itself explained. The second reason was that outcomes are ultimately what the crux of debate is about. The rest of the article in any case dealt with process - or conversions in this case, from both a contemporary and historical perspective.
2. Some commenters have tried to cast doubts on the reliability of Census 2001. Those who do this should bear in mind that Census 2001 was conducted by a BJP government. Considering the extreme importance that BJP gives to this issue, it would be reasonable to expect that IF it had perceived a problem with the methodology that was distorting the numbers, it would have fixed it. As the article mentioned, BJP or BJP-supported governments have been in power for 10 of the last 40 years, or about a quarter of the time, and the only reasonable conclusion one can arrive at is that any misreporting of numbers, real or perceived, would be marginal and hence, not of importance.
To all other arguments made, my answer is the following: Please read the article again, with particular focus on the quotations of Vivekananda and Monier Williams, and the history of the missionary efforts in Bengal and their outcome.
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My comment is limited to Mr. Adiga's review of 'Aavarana'.
A reader’s interpretation of a book of this nature depends on his/her own tendencies ( or vaasanas), so it’s unfortunate to see Mr. Adiga getting judgemental & taking pot-shots on the readers( as rabid right wingers & bigots). For me ‘Aavarana’ is a well researched documentary, mostly about the atrocities of a fanatic Moghul Emperor on Hindus, Jains & Buddhists during his regime. I admire the suggestion made by the protagonist, that the objective of a Historian should be to find the ‘real truth’ and importantly possess the courage to stand by the ‘findings’ even if those findings are not palatable to the land’s political, intellectual or religious mass, or to his/her own faith or personal beliefs. The take home for me is that, the bad odour can be eliminated only by burying the ‘dead rat’ and not by lighting incense sticks.
It’s not about the disapproval of destruction of temples and killings of religious Hindus per se, as much as about the violation of fundamental human rights. And anybody who violates human rights at this diabolical scale and proportion like Aurangzeb is accused of, must be strongly condemned in no uncertain terms by all those who believe in basic human rights such as freedom to choose one’s own faith. Dr.SLB has placed the details of references and conclusive material evidences about the Moghul’s supposedly fanatic & barbaric tendencies, shouldn’t Mr. Adiga therefore take those claims as the starting point of his argument as he, in the form of this subtle tirade, has disputed its contents and the spirit with which ‘Aavarana’ has been written.
A reader’s interpretation of a book of this nature depends on his/her own tendencies ( or vaasanas), so it’s unfortunate to see Mr. Adiga getting judgemental & taking pot-shots on the readers( rabid right wingers & bigots). For me ‘Aavarana’ is a well researched documentary, mostly about the atrocities of a fanatic Moghul Emperor on Hindus, Jains & Buddhists during his regime. I admire the suggestion made by the protagonist, that the objective of a Historian should be to find the ‘real truth’ and importantly possess the courage to stand by the ‘findings’ even if the findings are not palatable to the land’s political, intellectual or religious mass, or to his/her own faith or personal beliefs. The take home for me is that, the bad odour can be eliminated only by burying the ‘dead rat’ and not by lighting incense sticks.
It’s not about the disapproval of destruction of temples and killings of religious Hindus per se, as much as about violation of fundamental human rights. And anybody who violates human rights at this scale and proportion like Aurangzeb is accused of, must be strongly condemned in no uncertain terms by all communities. SLB has placed the details of references and material evidences about the Moghul’s supposedly fanatic & barbaric tendencies, shouldn’t you take those claims as your starting point as you, in the form of this tirade, wish to dispute the contents?
I read Vamshavriksha at the age of 19, exactly 40 years back. I was so much moved by the novel that I made a trip to Mysore despite not too good economic condition then. Thereafter, I read a couple of Bhyrappa's novels.I have enjoyed reading. I have also read URA's Samskara and a couple of other novels. I'm too small a man to comment who is good /better. But certainly, both have excellent narrative skills. Both of them have power to hold you enthralled.
This is a justified counter to Mr.Adiga's little piece!
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