Filmmaker M.S. Sathyu was working with the Patriot newspaper in Delhi when director-producer Chetan Anand came down from Mumbai to seek permission from the defence forces to shoot a film in Ladakh. He was making Haqeeqat, India’s best war film. However, one that was triggered not by celebrations of a grand victory but the pain of a humiliating defeat at the hands of China in 1962.
Ironically, it was a bunch of left-leaning IPTA artistes—Anand, Sathyu, Balraj Sahni, Kaifi and Shaukat Azmi—who came together to actively work on Haqeeqat, without charging a penny. “There were a lot of us who were angry with China, felt hurt and let down by Zhou Enlai,” recalls Sathyu. Much of the resentment got reflected in the film quite literally—like the oft-described scene of Mao’s Red Book being pierced with a bayonet and the critique of China interspersed with documentary footage of Zhou Enlai taking the guard of honour on his India visits. The Chinese were the quintessential baddies with no redeeming quality and China’s great betrayal was embedded in the film’s narrative sweep. Major Ranjit Singh (Balraj Sahni) on the frontline is warned of the impending aggression but told not to attack first and hold fire, only to find his men forced into a crushing retreat. “Interestingly, there was also a split in the Left at the time,” recalls cultural commentator Madan Gopal Singh. In the aftermath of the war, in 1964, the CPI had fractured and the CPI(M) had emerged from it; lines had been drawn between pro-Chinese and pro-Soviet factions.
Anand just had an idea of what he wanted to make, there was no ready script. Interactions with soldiers led the storyline. Haqeeqat is said to have been made with the support of the Indian government and is often referred to as a propaganda vehicle for Nehru. Cynicism with Nehruvian socialism had peaked by then. Nehru’s five principles of peaceful coexistence, Panchsheel, had been rendered obsolete. “The political leadership of the pre-Independence era was perceived as a family, a community. That idea had been brought to a close in the popular imagination,” says Madan Gopal. The defeat in the 1962 war was a moment of realisation, raising questions about India’s military capabilities under Nehru’s leadership. “Our army was ill-equipped, the soldiers didn’t even have proper clothes to wear in the inclement weather,” recalls Sathyu. In such a scenario came Haqeeqat, which at the very start claimed to be a tribute to Nehru and the Indian soldier. “There was an underlying need to reclaim Nehru and the pacifist policies,” says Madan Gopal. He considers it an unusual film in that everything happens entirely in the landscape. It was the first Indian film ever to be shot in Ladakh. There was no ready script in hand. Anand just had an idea of what he wanted to make, interacted with army personnel involved in the conflict as well as the local population and wrote scenes as he shot. Later, portions were shot in Mehboob and Kardar studios of Mumbai, with Sathyu as the art designer.
The landscape helped in playing up the human angle, the harshness highlighting the desolation. Music added to the emotions. “It was about various relationships and lives ravaged by the war. These were brought out through the songs,” recalls Madan Mohan’s son Sanjeev Kohli. Music charts the emotional graph of the film and, in turn, of the nation. Masti mein chhed ke reflected the positive mood of the soldiers which was soon to lead to the despair of war with songs like Main ye soch kar. The anguish and suffering of the armed forces and the nation was all-pervading. “The music had to be pathos-laden, it had to have an air of despondency,” says Kohli. There is the mandatory praise for the bravery and sacrifice of the Indian soldiers but as cultural commentator Sadanand Menon puts it, the film also had an interesting tinge of melancholy. “The futility of war and the sense of loss were seeped in the film. Main ye soch kar uske dar se utha tha contributed to the overall melancholia encapsulated in the film in the failure in love and war,” he says. But the crowning song was at the very end: Ab tumhare hawale watan saathiyon. Like a letter to the nation from its soldiers. And also from Nehru.
Thank you to all those who have taken the trouble to read the article and share their thoughts. Out of the arguments made here, there are two that perhaps need answering. So here they go.
1. The first part of the article compares outcomes (relative percentages of population of the religions concerned) irrespective of the process that led to those outcomes - whether immigration, relatively faster population growth or conversions. This was for two reasons. One, to put the figure of 2.3 per cent in "numerical perspective", as the article itself explained. The second reason was that outcomes are ultimately what the crux of debate is about. The rest of the article in any case dealt with process - or conversions in this case, from both a contemporary and historical perspective.
2. Some commenters have tried to cast doubts on the reliability of Census 2001. Those who do this should bear in mind that Census 2001 was conducted by a BJP government. Considering the extreme importance that BJP gives to this issue, it would be reasonable to expect that IF it had perceived a problem with the methodology that was distorting the numbers, it would have fixed it. As the article mentioned, BJP or BJP-supported governments have been in power for 10 of the last 40 years, or about a quarter of the time, and the only reasonable conclusion one can arrive at is that any misreporting of numbers, real or perceived, would be marginal and hence, not of importance.
To all other arguments made, my answer is the following: Please read the article again, with particular focus on the quotations of Vivekananda and Monier Williams, and the history of the missionary efforts in Bengal and their outcome.
It was insufferable propaganda, which treated its viewers like children who had to be told which side to cheer for.
The lefties did not do any patriotic act in such movies. They only tried to cover the failures of the Indian Leftist Idol, Jawaharlal Nehru and such propaganda was part of grand plan to brainwash millions that India had no alternative to Nehru dynasty rule.
50 years have passed, still it is a Nehru dynasty person who is controlling the country, even as China long ago Dumped Mao and his tyrannical ideologies. Maybe that is why China is ahead of India in most aspects ....
There was a great song, a martial, military song, sung by the soldiers, for themselves, in the movie. I must see the movie. It seems, every movie of Mr. Chetan Anand is a great event, when viewed. I haven't seen 'Guide', either. I don't really see a defeat, in '62.
I feel embarrassed expressing this. It seems, Jean Jacques Annaud, is a celebrated director, only because, I must confess that I loved the movie, 'Enemy at the gates'. I actually haven't seen any French movie, and haven't heard of any French director. The end is fascinating. The celebrated sniper Zaitsev, waits for his equally famous counterpart, to reveal himself, and he doesn't know when or if he will. His friend is talking to him, and he feels as if his friend is distracting him, from his eagerness, in his wait.
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