“You’ll be able to smell it,” is the constant refrain when we ask for directions to Vapi, an industrial town sitting on the southern end of the country’s Golden Corridor, a 400-km industrial belt in Gujarat. To reach this city in Valsad district, we travel on National Highway 8 which stretches from Mumbai to Surat. The highway itself is a joy to drive on, seeming to deliver the promise of Narendra Modi’s ‘Vibrant Gujarat’. But as Vapi approaches, more than the highway signboards marking distances, it’s the afore-mentioned smell, a pungent odour, that lets us know we are nearing our destination.
The approach to the city is marked with chimneys from the 1,048 registered industrial units jutting into the skyline. The town is grey and smoky, engulfed in haze. In the distance, from the vantage point of the elevated corridor, we can spot black smoke emitting from the factories dotting the vast Gujarat Industrial Development Corporation (GIDC) area that half of Vapi inhabits.
As the BJP’s prime ministerial candidate goes about promising development and urbanisation in his 2014 Vision Statement, Vapi perhaps best represents what Modi’s Gujarat model of development stands for. It’s the largest industrial township in Asia for small-scale industries, dominated by chemical and fertiliser factories. It has all the trappings of an industrial hub but, just 10 km away, the narrative encounters its biggest pitfall—a degraded environment. In 2013, Vapi was declared “critically polluted” by the Union ministry of environment and forests (MOEF), bringing it back on the list of most polluted places in India. Four months back, alarmed by the pollution levels, the MOEF reimposed a ban on permission for new projects in the city.
The elevated NH-8 cuts through Vapi town, bisecting it into two equal halves—the western part of the original town and the eastern part with its residences and the GIDC industrial estate. Vapi itself presents a bit of a dazzle. The drive-through itself boasts huge showrooms of Volkswagen, Chevrolet, Hyundai, Honda, Tata Motors and Nissan, in keeping with the aspirational tones of the business hub of Surat that lies ahead on the stretch. Inside, the bylanes are dotted with branded stores, targeted at the stream of foreigners that hoteliers claim continuously visit Vapi for business reasons.
Barely 10 km from the glitz, the scenery takes on a stark contrast. The metalled highway turns into potholed dirt tracks leading into the villages of Kolak, Udwada, Kalsar, Kikala, Saran, Orwad, Rethlao and Baghwara where the waste from the industries gathers through the local Kolak and Damanganga rivers. Undeveloped and poor, the air in this area has a distinctly foul smell. Villagers complain that over the years disease and death are now everyday ghosts. Sarpanch Kishore Bhai Ditiyatandel says, “Every second house in Kolak has a cancer patient. People just don’t talk about it because of the social stigma attached. Those with skin diseases hide their deformities. All these ailments, including TB and asthma, cropped up in the last 10 years.”
Every house in Kolak village has a ‘pollution file’, complete documentation of the long battle the villagers have waged on that front. Eighty-year-old Kantibhai Makrand, a cancer survivor, is bitter about the present and the future: “Traditionally, this is a fishing village. We had 48 boats in the village, supporting a population of 7,000 people exporting Bombay Duck, fish moss and fish fin. When the industries came, they polluted the rivers. Now the fish are all dead and the water is toxic.”
For proof, one just has to walk near the Kolak river bank bordering the village. The water is black and the stink is overpowering. The Vel khadi in Murraih village has sludge and foam floating on top and the Damanganga looks more like a drain. That’s why in 2010, tired of government apathy on the drinking water shortage in the area, Kolak’s villagers got together to collect donations for a private water filter plant. Set up at a cost of Rs 15 lakh, the plant caters to the needs of 50,000 people in the eight villages around Kolak. The heavily chlorinated water supplied by the state-run water works department is used for washing purposes only.
In Udwada, Danik Patel, once a farmer and now a construction labourer, says, “You can’t farm here anymore. Sugarcane and paddy that once grew well are all finished. Water and air pollution have ruined the soil.’’ Dismissing the clamour over pollution, Anil G. Patel, regional officer, GPCB, Vapi, has a ready defence: “There has been tremendous improvement in the last three years. We have pushed industries to spend Rs 300 crore on upgrading technology for treatment of waste. In the last six months alone, we have served 70 closure notices to various units for not following proper guidelines.’’ Quiz Patel on why the MOEF reimposed the tag of ‘critically polluted’ city on Vapi and he hints at the issue being “politically motivated”.
By Prarthna Gahilote in Vapi
In the ’60s, Vapi was one of the best farming areas, famous for its orchards which produced some of the best mangoes in the world (Where the Black Waters Part, Feb 03). The problem arose in the ’80s and ’90s, when Europe and other developed countries enforced bans on the production of certain chemicals and dyes, but the demand remained. So several entrepreneurs made their pile by producing them here, befouling Vapi.
D. Bhatt, Vadodara
I remember Vapi as a quiet and picturesque town. Modi’s development model has turned it into a hotbed of pollution and cancer.
Anwaar, Dallas, US
Let’s not forget that Gujarat has to give some to gain some: after all, Vapi produces much of the chemicals required by industries all across India. If things were so bad, people from Vapi would have fled to Bihar and other places in search of clean air etc; instead people from these places have flocked here for jobs.
Keshav Kumar Prasad, Pune
Your write-up is malicious. All that happened in Vapi took place during the time the Congress was ruling Gujarat.
P. Paul, Kartarpur
Thank you to all those who have taken the trouble to read the article and share their thoughts. Out of the arguments made here, there are two that perhaps need answering. So here they go.
1. The first part of the article compares outcomes (relative percentages of population of the religions concerned) irrespective of the process that led to those outcomes - whether immigration, relatively faster population growth or conversions. This was for two reasons. One, to put the figure of 2.3 per cent in "numerical perspective", as the article itself explained. The second reason was that outcomes are ultimately what the crux of debate is about. The rest of the article in any case dealt with process - or conversions in this case, from both a contemporary and historical perspective.
2. Some commenters have tried to cast doubts on the reliability of Census 2001. Those who do this should bear in mind that Census 2001 was conducted by a BJP government. Considering the extreme importance that BJP gives to this issue, it would be reasonable to expect that IF it had perceived a problem with the methodology that was distorting the numbers, it would have fixed it. As the article mentioned, BJP or BJP-supported governments have been in power for 10 of the last 40 years, or about a quarter of the time, and the only reasonable conclusion one can arrive at is that any misreporting of numbers, real or perceived, would be marginal and hence, not of importance.
To all other arguments made, my answer is the following: Please read the article again, with particular focus on the quotations of Vivekananda and Monier Williams, and the history of the missionary efforts in Bengal and their outcome.
May I remind all the GREEN Freaks here - complaining about the dirty black waters of Vapi that - the nice, eco friendly Computer or Tablet or Mobile, that you all use to read this webpage itself is manufactured in a very polluted, highly polluting factory in some industrial SEZ in People's Republic of China? It is just that your IPad or IPhone or Mac or Lenovo PC maker does not state all these truths when selling the device to you and makes you think that your computer/tablet/mobile is cleanest device ever made !!
Fact is - Pollution is part and parcel of industrial development. To deny this and claiming to Holier than thou is plain dishonesty.
If this author thinks this article or anything else will cause the communalists to rethink their support for Modi, he is mistaken. They support Modi because he is a criminal, not despite it.
True, that vibrant gujarat has to give some to gain some, but do not forget that these are the industries which provide bulk of the chemicals required by the industries all over in India. If it would have been so bad, then people would have fled to the other sates like UP / Bihar , in seach of clean environment. But the truth is that people from these two states find work in vapi and support their families back home.
BOTH THE CONGRESS AND B.J.P,TAKING WHOLE NATION INTO ANOTHER VAPI
many people even might not know that this vapi region was one of the best farming area. vapi and surrounding area was full of water. mango and other fruit tree were one of the best in world. so what went wrong?
in 80's and 90s when most of western world ban on chemical industries, our so called congress allow those chemical industries in india and they choose most fertile land of india like vapi. another industries they setup near naramada (they polluted naramada) and also same thing happen with ganga.
so this are all outcome of congress rule of 65 years. right now narendra modi also promoting industries but in those area where farming is not possible or it is minimum like near boarder of gujarat or area where land is not good farm land.
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