Ajmal Kasab’s execution marks an end to India’s widely hailed unofficial moratorium on capital punishment since 2004, when prime minister Manmohan Singh’s government took charge. It signifies a sad regression in India’s near-decade move away from the death penalty. Indian law allows for the death penalty, and death sentences are handed down by courts with some frequency. However, a 1980 Supreme Court ruling established the doctrine that the death penalty should only be used “in the rarest of the rare” cases. A single execution was carried out in 2004 after a lengthy unofficial moratorium earlier.
Human Rights Watch is opposed to the death penalty under all circumstances as an inherently irreversible, inhumane punishment. It is a practice abolished by a majority of world states. On December 18, 2007, the United Nations general assembly passed by a wide margin a resolution calling for a worldwide moratorium on executions. In fact, the international community had moved further towards abolishing the death penalty on November 19, 2012, when 110 countries approved a general assembly draft resolution calling for a moratorium on executions. India was part of a tiny minority that voted to retain capital punishment, arguing for it being used sparingly, and in cases of particularly heinous crimes.
In Kasab’s case, the “rarest of the rare” doctrine was upheld, considering the seriousness of his crime. However, apart from violating the very principle of the right to life, to those that celebrate his death as a step towards justice for the Mumbai attacks, bigger questions remain. Will his death serve as a deterrent? After all, Kasab had been sent on a suicide mission. He committed these acts and was prepared to die in the process. And this execution has fulfilled that mandate. More crucially, in the interest of justice, have the right people really been punished? Those that plotted the attack and deployed these deadly killers remain at large, or are yet to be convicted.
However, the “rarest of the rare” principle is in itself faulty, with interpretation left to the discretion of individual judges who are vulnerable to fallible judgements based on fallible evidence. On July 14, 2012, retired judges asked India’s president to commute the death sentences of 13 inmates erroneously sentenced by the Supreme Court. This followed the court’s admission that some of these death sentences were rendered per incuriam (out of error or ignorance). In November, the Supreme Court conceded that the “rarest of the rare” standard has not been applied uniformly over the years and the norms on death penalty need “a fresh look”.
It is thus essential that India demonstrate that Kasab’s execution was an aberration rather than a return to the days of widespread application of the death penalty. The government should now announce an official moratorium on the death penalty, and then work towards abolishing it altogether. The death penalty is an act of cruelty that should never be used, not least because of its negative and brutalising effect on society.
Former Time reporter Meenakshi Ganguly is South Asia director, Human Rights Watch; E-mail your columnist: gangulm AT hrw.org
Apropos Meenakshi Ganguly’s Jump Cut (The Question Hangs), human rights people are welcome to give their valuable opinion after some of their own become victims of terror.
Thank you to all those who have taken the trouble to read the article and share their thoughts. Out of the arguments made here, there are two that perhaps need answering. So here they go.
1. The first part of the article compares outcomes (relative percentages of population of the religions concerned) irrespective of the process that led to those outcomes - whether immigration, relatively faster population growth or conversions. This was for two reasons. One, to put the figure of 2.3 per cent in "numerical perspective", as the article itself explained. The second reason was that outcomes are ultimately what the crux of debate is about. The rest of the article in any case dealt with process - or conversions in this case, from both a contemporary and historical perspective.
2. Some commenters have tried to cast doubts on the reliability of Census 2001. Those who do this should bear in mind that Census 2001 was conducted by a BJP government. Considering the extreme importance that BJP gives to this issue, it would be reasonable to expect that IF it had perceived a problem with the methodology that was distorting the numbers, it would have fixed it. As the article mentioned, BJP or BJP-supported governments have been in power for 10 of the last 40 years, or about a quarter of the time, and the only reasonable conclusion one can arrive at is that any misreporting of numbers, real or perceived, would be marginal and hence, not of importance.
To all other arguments made, my answer is the following: Please read the article again, with particular focus on the quotations of Vivekananda and Monier Williams, and the history of the missionary efforts in Bengal and their outcome.
Jean Jacques Rousseau used to sign off his letters as the "Citizen of Geneva". It is always good to observe how columnists and writers identify themselves. Publications usually have a tag line at the bottom of the article, which introduces the writer. A short sentence or two or sometimes three tells us that the writer is a research fellow in a university or think tank, or author of a book or holding a senior position in an institution. In this particular article, I find it interesting to note that the writer still identifies herself as a fomer reporter of the weekly newsmagazine 'Time'. Not sure, but it is almost a decade since I would have read her article in Time,
I do not care about detterent... but at least we tax-payers are not paying more than 10 crores per year to keep that B@$**** alive.
>> "....is it their contention it is okay for the Government to hang an innocent person?" - Suresh
If they believe that they have been wrongly convicted, people have the choice to appeal to the higher courts, all the way to the Supreme Court. Specific to this case, the seculars are jumping as if they were being hanged yesterday.
>>> One of the strongest cases one can give for the abolition of death sentence is the possibility of innocents being hanged. Recently the Delhi High Court acquitted two men who were sentenced to death by the trial court.
For those who dislike the post from Saroja above, is it their contention it is okay for the Government to hang an innocent person?
Human Rights Watch is opposed to the death penalty under all circumstances as an inherently irreversible, inhumane punishment."
Is HRW opposed to abortion-which after all is baby killing.
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